Sopdet, Goddess of Sirius, New Year and Inundation…
Sopdet (Sepdet, Sothis) personified the ‘dog star’ Sirius. This star was the most important of the stars to the ancient Egyptians, and the heliacal rising of this star came at the time of inundation and the start of the Egyptian New Year. As a goddess of the inundation, she was a goddess of fertility. She also was linked to the pharaoh and his journey in the afterlife.
She was represented as a woman with a star on top of her headdress, or as a seated cow with a plant between her horns (just as Seshat‘s hieroglyph might have been a flower or a star) as depicted on an ivory tablet of King Djer. The plant may have been symbolic of the year, and thus linking her to the yearly rising of Sirius and the New Year. She was very occasionally depicted as a large dog, or in Roman times, as the goddess Isis-Sopdet, she was shown riding side-saddle on a large dog.
Sirius was both the most important star of ancient Egyptian astronomy, and one of the Decans (star groups into which the night sky was divided, with each group appearing for ten days annually). The heliacal rising (the first night that Sirius is seen, just before dawn) was noticed every year during July, and the Egyptians used this to mark the start of the New Year (wp rnpt, ‘The Opening of the Year’). It was celebrated with a festival known as ‘The Coming of Sopdet’.
The time period between Sothic risings is called the Sothic Cycle and it is one of the tools Egyptologists use to create a chronology of Egyptian history.
— Sopdet, April McDevitt
Even as early as the 1st Dynasty, she was known as ‘the bringer of the new year and the Nile flood’. When Sirius appeared in the sky each year, the Nile generally started to flood and bring fertility to the land. The ancient Egyptians connected the two events, and so Sopdet took on the aspects of a goddess of not only the star and of the inundation, but of the fertility that came to the land of Egypt with the flood. The flood and the rising of Sirius also marked the ancient Egyptian New Year, and so she also was thought of as a goddess of the New Year.
Her aspect of being a fertility goddess was not just linked to the Nile. By the Middle Kingdom, she was believed to be a mother goddess, and a nurse goddess, changing her from a goddess of agriculture to a goddess of motherhood. This probably was due to her strong connection with the mother-goddess Isis.
Not just a goddess of the waters of the inundation, Sopdet had another link with water – she was believed to cleanse the pharaoh in the afterlife. It is interesting to note that the embalming of the dead took seventy days – the same amount of time that Sirius was not seen in the sky, before it’s yearly rising. She was a goddess of fertility to both the living and the dead.
In the Pyramid Texts, she is the goddess who prepares yearly sustenance for the pharaoh, ‘in this her name of “Year”‘. She is also thought to be a guide in the afterlife for the pharaoh, letting him fly into the sky to join the gods, showing him ‘goodly roads’ in the Field of Reeds and helping him become one of the imperishable stars. She was thought to be living on the horizon, encircled by the Duat.
In the Pyramid texts, parallelling the story of Osiris and Isis, the pharaoh was believed to have had a child with Sopdet:
Your sister Isis comes to you rejoicing for love of you. You have placed her on your phallus and your seed issues into her, she being ready as Sopdet, and Horus-Soped has come forth from you as Horus who is in Sopdet.
— Sopdet in the Pyramid Texts
Sopdet was believed to be wife of Sah (the star Orion) and the mother of Soped (Sopdu). She was also thought to give birth to the Morning Star (Venus), the pharaoh being described as the father in the Pyramid Texts. She was linked closely with Isis, just as Sah and Soped were linked with Osiris and Horus. In ‘The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys for Osiris’, Isis calls herself Sopdet, saying that she will follow Osiris in the heaven. Sopdet was also connected to the goddess Satet at Abu (Elephantine).
Sirius happens to travel the sky just ahead of the large constellation of Orion. (His belt of three stars serves as an easy pointer towards Sirius, the unmistakable bright star that is one of the few visible even in city lights’ glare). Orion was identified with the dying-and-resurrected god Osiris, in Egyptian mythology, who was one of the most well-known gods of the pantheon. His wife and sister Isis was Lady of Magic, who brought her husband back to life, and the bright star his constellation followed naturally came to be associated with her.
— Inventing the Solar System: Early Greek Scientists Struggle to Explain How the Heavens Move, Ellen N. Brundige
She was also given a masculine aspect, and linked with Horus as Sopdet-Horus during the Middle Kingdom. She was also linked with Anubis during Greek Times as Sopdet-Anubis, probably because of the iconography of her as a god, or riding on the back of a dog. She was also linked with other goddesses such as Hathor, Bast and Anqet.
She was venerated in Per-Soped (Saft al Hinna), in the 20th Nome of Lower Egypt. She was the goddess who helped the pharaoh reach the realm of the gods, who heralded the innundation, and the goddess of the ancient Egyptian new year. She was the personification of the most important star of ancient Egypt, so important was she that her worship lasted through Egyptian history, from predynastic times, through to the Graeco-Roman period.
Call her super-talented or super-insane, there’s no denying that Lady Gaga has a magnetic effect on young girls, inspiring thousands of young fans to don blond wigs, sheer lace leggings, yellow caution tape and even sunglasses made out of cigarettes. But, the latest Gaga trend — circle lenses, has got not only fashion critics worried, but eye doctors as well.
Circle lenses were available before the Gaga explosion, and in fact their popularity originated in Japan, Singapore and South Korea where many young women wear them to accentuate their eyes to resemble Japanese anime characters. The decorative contact lenses come in a variety of colors and give the wearer a doe-eyed, childlike appearance.
Dr. James Salz, clinical professor of ophthalmology at USC, says the lenses aren’t radically different from the older colored contacts used for years to change people’s eye color, “except that before, the contacts weren’t also trying to enlarge the color of the iris.”
Unlike traditional colored contact lenses, which cover only the iris of the eye, circle lenses extend to cover part of the whites as well. Aside from the Lady Gaga allure, many young women claim that they wear them to make their eyes look bigger.
Since 2005, it has been illegal in the United States to sell any type of contact lenses — corrective or cosmetic — without a prescription, which is why no major manufacturer in the United States sells these contacts. Most young women end up getting them through online sellers that they have found out about through message boards and YouTube videos. Costs range from around $20 to $30 a pair, and corrective versions of the circle lenses are not available.
Perhaps the biggest tiff that doctors such as Salz have with these lenses is that girls can buy these without a prescription. No prescription means no sizing or fitting of the lenses to the eye.
“Each eye is unique and has different curvatures. There isn’t just one size,” Salz said.
For those who wear contacts that are too tight, the risks include swelling of the cornea, redness or corneal abrasion. Contacts that are too loose will move around and can also cause irritation and redness.
The main risk however, is infection, which Salz fears might become common among teens who wear these contacts and, thinking they are benign, decide that it’s OK to sleep in them.
“Sleeping in contact lenses probably increases the risk of infection tenfold because the eye gets less oxygen when you sleep at night, it’s easier for bacteria and infection to breed,” he said.
Ideally, Salz said, for the circle lenses to be safe — or safer, at least — the manufacturers should offer the contacts in a variety of sizes so that they can properly fit their customers.
But at the very least, if you aren’t going to chuck your circle lenses in the trash, Salz recommends that the best way to prevent infection and other eye problems is to wear them only for short periods of time and to soak them in sterilizing contact lens solution when you sleep.
Here’s the warning from the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Here’s a New York Times article on the issue and another from Britain’s Independent.
Toy maker MGA Entertainment Inc. Thursday won back the rights to its popular Bratz doll line from Mattel Inc., notching a significant legal victory, though the long-running doll wars case will possibly be retried.
Eyedea/Zuma PressMGA Entertainment CEO Isaac Larian, above, said he cried following Thursday’s ruling, in his favor.
In a unanimous decision, the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco threw out a district court’s injunction that essentially ordered MGA to turn over its line of pouty-lipped, big headed Bratz dolls to Mattel, maker of the iconic Barbie doll.
“America thrives on competition; Barbie, the all-American girl, will too,” Chief Judge Alex Kozinski wrote in Thursday’s ruling.
MGA Chief Executive Isaac Larian said he had been crying since he read the verdict. “We always believed that in the end the right thing would happen,” Mr. Larian said.
In anticipation of winning the appeal and to commemorate the dolls’ 10-year anniversary, Mr. Larian manufactured a new Bratz line, which comprises 10 dolls, that is set to hit store shelves in October. Calling it a calculated gamble, Mr. Larian said, “If I had let Bratz die and they ruled in my favor, [the brand] would have been dead.”
The 10 new Bratz dolls will be fashionable and edgy like their predecessors, but not as sexy—one of the complaints parents had about them, Mr. Larian said.
At its height in 2005, Bratz generated more than $1 billion a year in sales that cut deeply into Mattel’s Barbie doll sales. Bratz dolls’ popularity has faded recently; analysts estimate the Bratz dolls generated about $300 million in revenue last year.MGA also makes the Little Tikes line of molded plastic toys and last year launched Moxie Girlz, dolls geared toward younger girls. Earlier this week, the toy maker unveiled Bitty Buttons, a collection of rag dolls.
Two years ago a jury in Riverside, Calif., awarded Mattel $100 million in damages in a closely followed lawsuit that claimed copyright infringement and breach of contract because the dolls’ designer, Carter Bryant, was under contract to Mattel when he developed the Bratz concept and sold it to MGA.
The court ruled Thursday that the trial judge had made errors in instructing the jury. As a result, “it’s likely that a significant portion—if not all—of the jury verdict and damage award should be vacated, and the entire case will probably need to be retried,” wrote Judge Kozinski. It will be up to U.S. District Court Judge David O. Carter to determine if their will be a retrial.
“We look forward to a full trial on all of Mattel’s claims against MGA,” Mattel said in a statement.
At the time of the trial two years ago, federal Judge Stephen Larson, who has since resigned, further ordered that MGA hand over the Bratz franchise and name to Mattel by the beginning of 2010 and destroy all Bratz products remaining on store shelves.
A three-judge federal appeals court panel suspended that order in December until the court ruled on MGA’s appeal, which argued that Judge Larson overreached in his decision and questioned the extent to which a corporation can own its employees’ ideas.
The appeals court, however, said that even if MGA has misappropriated some of Mattel’s intellectual property, the trademarks MGA eventually acquired for the Bratz line “was significantly greater because of MGA’s own development efforts, marketing and investment.”
MGA took a big financial hit in the lawsuit, spending more than $100 million in legal fees and losing the revenue stream from the company’s biggest toy brand.
Since the trial judge’s ruling, the proceeds from Bratz sales has been put into an escrow account until all appeals have been exhausted.
“The Ninth Circuit restored balance between the rights of employees and employers and the ownership of ideas and free expression,” said MGA’s appellate attorney Joshua Rosenkranz.
The people of North America and Western Europe now accept a level of ugliness in their daily lives which is almost without precedent in the history of Western civilization. Most of us have become so inured, that the death of millions from starvation and disease draws from us no more than a sigh, or a murmur of protest. Our own city streets, home to legions of the homeless, are ruled by Dope, Inc., the largest industry in the world, and on those streets Americans now murder each other at a rate not seen since the Dark Ages.
At the same time, a thousand smaller horrors are so commonplace as to go unnoticed. Our children spend as much time sitting in front of television sets as they do in school, watching with glee, scenes of torture and death which might have shocked an audience in the Roman Coliseum. Music is everywhere, almost unavoidable—but it does not uplift, nor even tranquilize—it claws at the ears, sometimes spitting out an obscenity. Our plastic arts are ugly, our architecture is ugly, our clothes are ugly. There have certainly been periods in history where mankind has lived through similar kinds of brutishness, but our time is crucially different. Our post-World War II era is the first in history in which these horrors are completely avoidable. Our time is the first to have the technology and resources to feed, house, educate, and humanely employ every person on earth, no matter what the growth of population. Yet, when shown the ideas and proven technologies that can solve the most horrendous problems, most people retreat into implacable passivity. We have become not only ugly, but impotent.
Nonetheless, there is no reason why our current moral-cultural situation had to lawfully or naturally turn out as it has; and there is no reason why this tyranny of ugliness should continue one instant longer.
Consider the situation just one hundred years ago, in the early 1890’s. In music, Claude Debussy was completing his Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, and Arnold Schönberg was beginning to experiment with atonalism; at the same time, Dvorak was working on his Ninth Symphony, while Brahms and Verdi still lived. Edvard Munch was showing The Scream, and Paul Gauguin his Self-Portrait with Halo, but in America, Thomas Eakins was still painting and teaching. Mechanists like Helmholtz and Mach held major university chairs of science, alongside the students of Riemann and Cantor. Pope Leo XIII’s De Rerum Novarum was being promulgated, even as sections of the Socialist Second International were turning terrorist, and preparing for class war.
The optimistic belief that one could compose music like Beethoven, paint like Rembrandt, study the universe like Plato and Nicolaus of Cusa, and change world society without violence, was alive in the 1890’s—admittedly, it was weak, and under siege, but it was hardly dead. Yet, within twenty short years, these Classical traditions of human civilization had been all but swept away, and the West had committed itself to a series of wars of inconceivable carnage.
What started about a hundred years ago, was what might be called a counter-Renaissance. The Renaissance of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was a religious celebration of the human soul and mankind’s potential for growth. Beauty in art could not be conceived of as anything less than the expression of the most-advanced scientific principles, as demonstrated by the geometry upon which Leonardo’s perspective and Brunelleschi’s great Dome of Florence Cathedral are based. The finest minds of the day turned their thoughts to the heavens and the mighty waters, and mapped the solar system and the route to the New World, planning great projects to turn the course of rivers for the betterment of mankind. About a hundred years ago, it was as though a long checklist had been drawn up, with all of the wonderful achievements of the Renaissance itemized—each to be reversed. As part of this “New Age” movement, as it was then called, the concept of the human soul was undermined by the most vociferous intellectual campaign in history; art was forcibly separated from science, and science itself was made the object of deep suspicion. Art was made ugly because, it was said, life had become ugly.
The cultural shift away from the Renaissance ideas that built the modern world, was due to a kind of freemasonry of ugliness. In the beginning, it was a formal political conspiracy to popularize theories that were specifically designed to weaken the soul of Judeo-Christian civilization in such a way as to make people believe that creativity was not possible, that adherence to universal truth was evidence of authoritarianism, and that reason itself was suspect. This conspiracy was decisive in planning and developing, as means of social manipulation, the vast new sister industries of radio, television, film, recorded music, advertising, and public opinion polling. The pervasive psychological hold of the media was purposely fostered to create the passivity and pessimism which afflict our populations today. So successful was this conspiracy, that it has become embedded in our culture; it no longer needs to be a “conspiracy,” for it has taken on a life of its own. Its successes are not debatable—you need only turn on the radio or television. Even the nomination of a Supreme Court Justice is deformed into an erotic soap opera, with the audience rooting from the sidelines for their favorite character.
Our universities, the cradle of our technological and intellectual future, have become overwhelmed by Comintern-style New Age “Political Correctness.” With the collapse of the Soviet Union, our campuses now represent the largest concentration of Marxist dogma in the world. The irrational adolescent outbursts of the 1960’s have become institutionalized into a “permanent revolution.” Our professors glance over their shoulders, hoping the current mode will blow over before a student’s denunciation obliterates a life’s work; some audio-tape their lectures, fearing accusations of “insensitivity” by some enraged “Red Guard.” Students at the University of Virginia recently petitioned successfully to drop the requirement to read Homer, Chaucer, and other DEMS (“Dead European Males”) because such writings are considered ethnocentric, phallocentric, and generally inferior to the “more relevant” Third World, female, or homosexual authors.
This is not the academy of a republic; this is Hitler’s Gestapo and Stalin’s NKVD rooting out “deviationists,” and banning books—the only thing missing is the public bonfire.
We will have to face the fact that the ugliness we see around us has been consciously fostered and organized in such a way, that a majority of the population is losing the cognitive ability to transmit to the next generation, the ideas and methods upon which our civilization was built. The loss of that ability is the primary indicator of a Dark Age. And, a new Dark Age is exactly what we are in. In such situations, the record of history is unequivocal: either we create a Renaissance—a rebirth of the fundamental principles upon which civilization originated—or, our civilization dies.
I. The Frankfurt School: Bolshevik Intelligentsia
The single, most important organizational component of this conspiracy was a Communist thinktank called the Institute for Social Research (I.S.R.), but popularly known as the Frankfurt School.
In the heady days immediately after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, it was widely believed that proletarian revolution would momentarily sweep out of the Urals into Europe and, ultimately, North America. It did not; the only two attempts at workers’ government in the West— in Munich and Budapest—lasted only months. The Communist International (Comintern) therefore began several operations to determine why this was so. One such was headed by Georg Lukacs, a Hungarian aristocrat, son of one of the Hapsburg Empire’s leading bankers. Trained in Germany and already an important literary theorist, Lukacs became a Communist during World War I, writing as he joined the party, “Who will save us from Western civilization?” Lukacs was well-suited to the Comintern task: he had been one of the Commissars of Culture during the short-lived Hungarian Soviet in Budapest in 1919; in fact, modern historians link the shortness of the Budapest experiment to Lukacs’ orders mandating sex education in the schools, easy access to contraception, and the loosening of divorce laws—all of which revulsed Hungary’s Roman Catholic population.
Fleeing to the Soviet Union after the counter-revolution, Lukacs was secreted into Germany in 1922, where he chaired a meeting of Communist-oriented sociologists and intellectuals. This meeting founded the Institute for Social Research. Over the next decade, the Institute worked out what was to become the Comintern’s most successful psychological warfare operation against the capitalist West.
Lukacs identified that any political movement capable of bringing Bolshevism to the West would have to be, in his words, “demonic”; it would have to “possess the religious power which is capable of filling the entire soul; a power that characterized primitive Christianity.” However, Lukacs suggested, such a “messianic” political movement could only succeed when the individual believes that his or her actions are determined by “not a personal destiny, but the destiny of the community” in a world “that has been abandoned by God [emphasis added-MJM].” Bolshevism worked in Russia because that nation was dominated by a peculiar gnostic form of Christianty typified by the writings of Fyodor Dostoyevsky. “The model for the new man is Alyosha Karamazov,” said Lukacs, referring to the Dostoyevsky character who willingly gave over his personal identity to a holy man, and thus ceased to be “unique, pure, and therefore abstract.”
This abandonment of the soul’s uniqueness also solves the problem of “the diabolic forces lurking in all violence” which must be unleashed in order to create a revolution. In this context, Lukacs cited the Grand Inquisitor section of Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov, noting that the Inquisitor who is interrogating Jesus, has resolved the issue of good and evil: once man has understood his alienation from God, then any act in the service of the “destiny of the community” is justified; such an act can be “neither crime nor madness…. For crime and madness are objectifications of transcendental homelessness.”
According to an eyewitness, during meetings of the Hungarian Soviet leadership in 1919 to draw up lists for the firing squad, Lukacs would often quote the Grand Inquisitor: “And we who, for their happiness, have taken their sins upon ourselves, we stand before you and say, ‘Judge us if you can and if you dare.’ ”
The Problem of Genesis
What differentiated the West from Russia, Lukacs identified, was a Judeo-Christian cultural matrix which emphasized exactly the uniqueness and sacredness of the individual which Lukacs abjured. At its core, the dominant Western ideology maintained that the individual, through the exercise of his or her reason, could discern the Divine Will in an unmediated relationship. What was worse, from Lukacs’ standpoint: this reasonable relationship necessarily implied that the individual could and should change the physical universe in pursuit of the Good; that Man should have dominion over Nature, as stated in the Biblical injunction in Genesis. The problem was, that as long as the individual had the belief—or even the hope of the belief—that his or her divine spark of reason could solve the problems facing society, then that society would never reach the state of hopelessness and alienation which Lukacs recognized as the necessary prerequisite for socialist revolution.
The task of the Frankfurt School, then, was first, to undermine the Judeo-Christian legacy through an “abolition of culture” (Aufhebung der Kultur in Lukacs’ German); and, second, to determine new cultural forms which would increase the alienation of the population, thus creating a “new barbarism.” To this task, there gathered in and around the Frankfurt School an incredible assortment of not only Communists, but also non-party socialists, radical phenomenologists, Zionists, renegade Freudians, and at least a few members of a self-identified “cult of Astarte.” The variegated membership reflected, to a certain extent, the sponsorship: although the Institute for Social Research started with Comintern support, over the next three decades its sources of funds included various German and American universities, the Rockefeller Foundation, Columbia Broadcasting System, the American Jewish Committee, several American intelligence services, the Office of the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, the International Labour Organization, and the Hacker Institute, a posh psychiatric clinic in Beverly Hills.
Similarly, the Institute’s political allegiances: although top personnel maintained what might be called a sentimental relationship to the Soviet Union (and there is evidence that some of them worked for Soviet intelligence into the 1960’s), the Institute saw its goals as higher than that of Russian foreign policy. Stalin, who was horrified at the undisciplined, “cosmopolitan” operation set up by his predecessors, cut the Institute off in the late 1920’s, forcing Lukacs into “self-criticism,” and briefly jailing him as a German sympathizer during World War II.
Lukacs survived to briefly take up his old post as Minister of Culture during the anti-Stalinist Imre Nagy regime in Hungary. Of the other top Institute figures, the political perambulations of Herbert Marcuse are typical. He started as a Communist; became a protégé of philosopher Martin Heidegger even as the latter was joining the Nazi Party; coming to America, he worked for the World War II Office of Strategic Services (OSS), and later became the U.S. State Department’s top analyst of Soviet policy during the height of the McCarthy period; in the 1960’s, he turned again, to become the most important guru of the New Left; and he ended his days helping to found the environmentalist extremist Green Party in West Germany.
In all this seeming incoherence of shifting positions and contradictory funding, there is no ideological conflict. The invariant is the desire of all parties to answer Lukacs’ original question: “Who will save us from Western civilization?”
Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin
Perhaps the most important, if least-known, of the Frankfurt School’s successes was the shaping of the electronic media of radio and television into the powerful instruments of social control which they represent today. This grew out of the work originally done by two men who came to the Institute in the late 1920’s, Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin.
After completing studies at the University of Frankfurt, Walter Benjamin planned to emigrate to Palestine in 1924 with his friend Gershom Scholem (who later became one of Israel’s most famous philosophers, as well as Judaism’s leading gnostic), but was prevented by a love affair with Asja Lacis, a Latvian actress and Comintern stringer. Lacis whisked him off to the Italian island of Capri, a cult center from the time of the Emperor Tiberius, then used as a Comintern training base; the heretofore apolitical Benjamin wrote Scholem from Capri, that he had found “an existential liberation and an intensive insight into the actuality of radical communism.”
Lacis later took Benjamin to Moscow for further indoctrination, where he met playwright Bertolt Brecht, with whom he would begin a long collaboration; soon thereafter, while working on the first German translation of the drug-enthusiast French poet Baudelaire, Benjamin began serious experimentation with hallucinogens. In 1927, he was in Berlin as part of a group led by Adorno, studying the works of Lukacs; other members of the study group included Brecht and his composer-partner Kurt Weill; Hans Eisler, another composer who would later become a Hollywood film score composer and co-author with Adorno of the textbook Composition for the Film; the avant-garde photographer Imre Moholy-Nagy; and the conductor Otto Klemperer.
From 1928 to 1932, Adorno and Benjamin had an intensive collaboration, at the end of which they began publishing articles in the Institute’s journal, the Zeitschrift fär Sozialforschung. Benjamin was kept on the margins of the Institute, largely due to Adorno, who would later appropriate much of his work. As Hitler came to power, the Institute’s staff fled, but, whereas most were quickly spirited away to new deployments in the U.S. and England, there were no job offers for Benjamin, probably due to the animus of Adorno. He went to France, and, after the German invasion, fled to the Spanish border; expecting momentary arrest by the Gestapo, he despaired and died in a dingy hotel room of self-administered drug overdose.
Benjamin’s work remained almost completely unknown until 1955, when Scholem and Adorno published an edition of his material in Germany. The full revival occurred in 1968, when Hannah Arendt, Heidegger’s former mistress and a collaborator of the Institute in America, published a major article on Benjamin in the New Yorker magazine, followed in the same year by the first English translations of his work. Today, every university bookstore in the country boasts a full shelf devoted to translations of every scrap Benjamin wrote, plus exegesis, all with 1980’s copyright dates.
Adorno was younger than Benjamin, and as aggressive as the older man was passive. Born Teodoro Wiesengrund-Adorno to a Corsican family, he was taught the piano at an early age by an aunt who lived with the family and had been the concert accompanist to the international opera star Adelina Patti. It was generally thought that Theodor would become a professional musician, and he studied with Bernard Sekles, Paul Hindemith’s teacher. However, in 1918, while still a gymnasium student, Adorno met Siegfried Kracauer. Kracauer was part of a Kantian-Zionist salon which met at the house of Rabbi Nehemiah Nobel in Frankfurt; other members of the Nobel circle included philosopher Martin Buber, writer Franz Rosenzweig, and two students, Leo Lowenthal and Erich Fromm. Kracauer, Lowenthal, and Fromm would join the I.S.R. two decades later. Adorno engaged Kracauer to tutor him in the philosophy of Kant; Kracauer also introduced him to the writings of Lukacs and to Walter Benjamin, who was around the Nobel clique.
In 1924, Adorno moved to Vienna, to study with the atonalist composers Alban Berg and Arnold Schönberg, and became connected to the avant-garde and occult circle around the old Marxist Karl Kraus. Here, he not only met his future collaborator, Hans Eisler, but also came into contact with the theories of Freudian extremist Otto Gross. Gross, a long-time cocaine addict, had died in a Berlin gutter in 1920, while on his way to help the revolution in Budapest; he had developed the theory that mental health could only be achieved through the revival of the ancient cult of Astarte, which would sweep away monotheism and the “bourgeois family.”
Saving Marxist Aesthetics
By 1928, Adorno and Benjamin had satisfied their intellectual wanderlust, and settled down at the I.S.R. in Germany to do some work. As subject, they chose an aspect of the problem posed by Lukacs: how to give aesthetics a firmly materialistic basis. It was a question of some importance, at the time. Official Soviet discussions of art and culture, with their wild gyrations into “socialist realism” and “proletkult,” were idiotic, and only served to discredit Marxism’s claim to philosophy among intellectuals. Karl Marx’s own writings on the subject were sketchy and banal, at best.
In essence, Adorno and Benjamin’s problem was Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Leibniz had once again obliterated the centuries-old gnostic dualism dividing mind and body, by demonstrating that matter does not think. A creative act in art or science apprehends the truth of the physical universe, but it is not determined by that physical universe. By self-consciously concentrating the past in the present to effect the future, the creative act, properly defined, is as immortal as the soul which envisions the act. This has fatal philosophical implications for Marxism, which rests entirely on the hypothesis that mental activity is determined by the social relations excreted by mankind’s production of its physical existence.
Marx sidestepped the problem of Leibniz, as did Adorno and Benjamin, although the latter did it with a lot more panache. It is wrong, said Benjamin in his first articles on the subject, to start with the reasonable, hypothesizing mind as the basis of the development of civilization; this is an unfortunate legacy of Socrates. As an alternative, Benjamin posed an Aristotelian fable in interpretation of Genesis: Assume that Eden were given to Adam as the primordial physical state. The origin of science and philosophy does not lie in the investigation and mastery of nature, but in the naming of the objects of nature; in the primordial state, to name a thing was to say all there was to say about that thing. In support of this, Benjamin cynically recalled the opening lines of the Gospel according to St. John, carefully avoiding the philosophically-broader Greek, and preferring the Vulgate (so that, in the phrase “In the beginning was the Word,” the connotations of the original Greek word logos—speech, reason, ratiocination, translated as “Word”—are replaced by the narrower meaning of the Latin word verbum). After the expulsion from Eden and God’s requirement that Adam eat his bread earned by the sweat of his face (Benjamin’s Marxist metaphor for the development of economies), and God’s further curse of Babel on Nimrod (that is, the development of nation-states with distinct languages, which Benjamin and Marx viewed as a negative process away from the “primitive communism” of Eden), humanity became “estranged” from the physical world.
Thus, Benjamin continued, objects still give off an “aura” of their primordial form, but the truth is now hopelessly elusive. In fact, speech, written language, art, creativity itself—that by which we master physicality—merely furthers the estrangement by attempting, in Marxist jargon, to incorporate objects of nature into the social relations determined by the class structure dominant at that point in history. The creative artist or scientist, therefore, is a vessel, like Ion the rhapsode as he described himself to Socrates, or like a modern “chaos theory” advocate: the creative act springs out of the hodgepodge of culture as if by magic. The more that bourgeois man tries to convey what he intends about an object, the less truthful he becomes; or, in one of Benjamin’s most oft-quoted statements, “Truth is the death of intention.”
This philosophical sleight-of-hand allows one to do several destructive things. By making creativity historically-specific, you rob it of both immortality and morality. One cannot hypothesize universal truth, or natural law, for truth is completely relative to historical development. By discarding the idea of truth and error, you also may throw out the “obsolete” concept of good and evil; you are, in the words of Friedrich Nietzsche, “beyond good and evil.” Benjamin is able, for instance, to defend what he calls the “Satanism” of the French Symbolists and their Surrealist successors, for at the core of this Satanism “one finds the cult of evil as a political device … to disinfect and isolate against all moralizing dilettantism” of the bourgeoisie. To condemn the Satanism of Rimbaud as evil, is as incorrect as to extol a Beethoven quartet or a Schiller poem as good; for both judgments are blind to the historical forces working unconsciously on the artist.
Thus, we are told, the late Beethoven’s chord structure was striving to be atonal, but Beethoven could not bring himself consciously to break with the structured world of Congress of Vienna Europe (Adorno’s thesis); similarly, Schiller really wanted to state that creativity was the liberation of the erotic, but as a true child of the Enlightenment and Immanuel Kant, he could not make the requisite renunciation of reason (Marcuse’s thesis). Epistemology becomes a poor relation of public opinion, since the artist does not consciously create works in order to uplift society, but instead unconsciously transmits the ideological assumptions of the culture into which he was born. The issue is no longer what is universally true, but what can be plausibly interpreted by the self-appointed guardians of the Zeitgeist.
“The Bad New Days”
Thus, for the Frankfort School, the goal of a cultural elite in the modern, “capitalist” era must be to strip away the belief that art derives from the self-conscious emulation of God the Creator; “religious illumination,” says Benjamin, must be shown to “reside in a profane illumination, a materialistic, anthropological inspiration, to which hashish, opium, or whatever else can give an introductory lesson.” At the same time, new cultural forms must be found to increase the alienation of the population, in order for it to understand how truly alienated it is to live without socialism. “Do not build on the good old days, but on the bad new ones,” said Benjamin.
The proper direction in painting, therefore, is that taken by the late Van Gogh, who began to paint objects in disintegration, with the equivalent of a hashish-smoker’s eye that “loosens and entices things out of their familiar world.” In music, “it is not suggested that one can compose better today” than Mozart or Beethoven, said Adorno, but one must compose atonally, for atonalism is sick, and “the sickness, dialectically, is at the same time the cure….The extraordinarily violent reaction protest which such music confronts in the present society … appears nonetheless to suggest that the dialectical function of this music can already be felt … negatively, as ‘destruction.’ ”
The purpose of modern art, literature, and music must be to destroy the uplifting—therefore, bourgeois — potential of art, literature, and music, so that man, bereft of his connection to the divine, sees his only creative option to be political revolt. “To organize pessimism means nothing other than to expel the moral metaphor from politics and to discover in political action a sphere reserved one hundred percent for images.” Thus, Benjamin collaborated with Brecht to work these theories into practical form, and their joint effort culminated in the Verfremdungseffekt (“estrangement effect”), Brecht’s attempt to write his plays so as to make the audience leave the theatre demoralized and aimlessly angry.
The Adorno-Benjamin analysis represents almost the entire theoretical basis of all the politically correct aesthetic trends which now plague our universities. The Poststructuralism of Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, and Jacques Derrida, the Semiotics of Umberto Eco, the Deconstructionism of Paul DeMan, all openly cite Benjamin as the source of their work. The Italian terrorist Eco’s best-selling novel, The Name of the Rose, is little more than a paean to Benjamin; DeMan, the former Nazi collaborator in Belgium who became a prestigious Yale professor, began his career translating Benjamin; Barthes’ infamous 1968 statement that “[t]he author is dead,” is meant as an elaboration of Benjamin’s dictum on intention. Benjamin has actually been called the heir of Leibniz and of Wilhelm von Humboldt, the philologist collaborator of Schiller whose educational reforms engendered the tremendous development of Germany in the nineteenth century. Even as recently as September 1991, the Washington Post referred to Benjamin as “the finest German literary theorist of the century (and many would have left off that qualifying German).”
Readers have undoubtedly heard one or another horror story about how an African-American Studies Department has procured a ban on Othello, because it is “racist,” or how a radical feminist professor lectured a Modern Language Association meeting on the witches as the “true heroines” of Macbeth. These atrocities occur because the perpetrators are able to plausibly demonstrate, in the tradition of Benjamin and Adorno, that Shakespeare’s intent is irrelevant; what is important, is the racist or phallocentric “subtext” of which Shakespeare was unconscious when he wrote.
When the local Women’s Studies or Third World Studies Department organizes students to abandon classics in favor of modern Black and feminist authors, the reasons given are pure Benjamin. It is not that these modern writers are better, but they are somehow more truthful because their alienated prose reflects the modern social problems of which the older authors were ignorant! Students are being taught that language itself is, as Benjamin said, merely a conglomeration of false “names” foisted upon society by its oppressors, and are warned against “logocentrism,” the bourgeois over-reliance on words.
If these campus antics appear “retarded” (in the words of Adorno), that is because they are designed to be. The Frankfurt School’s most important breakthrough consists in the realization that their monstrous theories could become dominant in the culture, as a result of the changes in society brought about by what Benjamin called “the age of mechanical reproduction of art.”
II. The Establishment Goes Bolshevik: “Entertainment” Replaces Art
Before the twentieth century, the distinction between art and “entertainment” was much more pronounced. One could be entertained by art, certainly, but the experience was active, not passive. On the first level, one had to make a conscious choice to go to a concert, to view a certain art exhibit, to buy a book or piece of sheet music. It was unlikely that any more than an infinitesimal fraction of the population would have the opportunity to see King Lear or hear Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony more than once or twice in a lifetime. Art demanded that one bring one’s full powers of concentration and knowledge of the subject to bear on each experience, or else the experience were considered wasted. These were the days when memorization of poetry and whole plays, and the gathering of friends and family for a “parlor concert,” were the norm, even in rural households. These were also the days before “music appreciation”; when one studied music, as many did, they learned to play it, not appreciate it.
However, the new technologies of radio, film, and recorded music represented, to use the appropriate Marxist buzz-word, (see box) a dialectical potential. On the one hand, these technologies held out the possibility of bringing the greatest works of art to millions of people who would otherwise not have access to them. On the other, the fact that the experience was infinitely reproducible could tend to disengage the audience’s mind, making the experience less sacred, thus increasing alienation. Adorno called this process, “demythologizing.” This new passivity, Adorno hypothesized in a crucial article published in 1938, could fracture a musical composition into the “entertaining” parts which would be “fetishized” in the memory of the listener, and the difficult parts, which would be forgotten. Adorno continues,
The counterpart to the fetishism is a regression of listening. This does not mean a relapse of the individual listener into an earlier phase of his own development, nor a decline in the collective general level, since the millions who are reached musically for the first time by today’s mass communications cannot be compared with the audiences of the past. Rather, it is the contemporary listening which has regressed, arrested at the infantile stage. Not only do the listening subjects lose, along with the freedom of choice and responsibility, the capacity for the conscious perception of music …. [t]hey fluctuate between comprehensive forgetting and sudden dives into recognition. They listen atomistically and dissociate what they hear, but precisely in this dissociation they develop certain capacities which accord less with the traditional concepts of aesthetics than with those of football or motoring. They are not childlike … but they are childish; their primitivism is not that of the undeveloped, but that of the forcibly retarded. [emphasis aded]
This conceptual retardation and preconditioning caused by listening, suggested that programming could determine preference. The very act of putting, say, a Benny Goodman number next to a Mozart sonata on the radio, would tend to amalgamate both into entertaining “music-on-the-radio” in the mind of the listener. This meant that even new and unpalatable ideas could become popular by “re-naming” them through the universal homogenizer of the culture industry. As Benjamin puts it,
Mechanical reproduction of art changes the reaction of the masses toward art. The reactionary attitude toward a Picasso painting changes into a progressive reaction toward a Chaplin movie. The progressive reaction is characterized by the direct, intimate fusion of visual and emotional enjoyment with the orientation of the expert…. With regard to the screen, the critical and receptive attitudes of the public coincide. The decisive reason for this is that the individual reactions are predetermined by the mass audience response they are about to produce, and this is nowhere more pronounced than in the film.
At the same time, the magic power of the media could be used to re-define previous ideas. “Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Beethoven will all make films,” concluded Benjamin, quoting the French film pioneer Abel Gance, “… all legends, all mythologies, all myths, all founders of religions, and the very religions themselves … await their exposed resurrection.”
Social Control: The “Radio Project”
Here, then, were some potent theories of social control. The great possibilities of this Frankfurt School media work were probably the major contributing factor in the support given the I.S.R. by the bastions of the Establishment, after the Institute transferred its operations to America in 1934.
In 1937, the Rockefeller Foundation began funding research into the social effects of new forms of mass media, particularly radio. Before World War I, radio had been a hobbyist’s toy, with only 125,000 receiving sets in the entire U.S.; twenty years later, it had become the primary mode of entertainment in the country; out of 32 million American families in 1937, 27.5 million had radios — a larger percentage than had telephones, automobiles, plumbing, or electricity! Yet, almost no systematic research had been done up to this point. The Rockefeller Foundation enlisted several universities, and headquartered this network at the School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. Named the Office of Radio Research, it was popularly known as “the Radio Project.”
The director of the Project was Paul Lazersfeld, the foster son of Austrian Marxist economist Rudolph Hilferding, and a long-time collaborator of the I.S.R. from the early 1930’s. Under Lazersfeld was Frank Stanton, a recent Ph.D. in industrial psychology from Ohio State, who had just been made research director of Columbia Broadcasting System—a grand title but a lowly position. After World War II, Stanton became president of the CBS News Division, and ultimately president of CBS at the height of the TV network’s power; he also became Chairman of the Board of the RAND Corporation, and a member of President Lyndon Johnson’s “kitchen cabinet.” Among the Project’s researchers were Herta Herzog, who married Lazersfeld and became the first director of research for the Voice of America; and Hazel Gaudet, who became one of the nation’s leading political pollsters. Theodor Adorno was named chief of the Project’s music section.
Despite the official gloss, the activities of the Radio Project make it clear that its purpose was to test empirically the Adorno-Benjamin thesis that the net effect of the mass media could be to atomize and increase lability—what people would later call “brainwashing.”
Soap Operas and the Invasion from Mars
The first studies were promising. Herta Herzog produced “On Borrowed Experiences,” the first comprehensive research on soap operas. The “serial radio drama” format was first used in 1929, on the inspiration of the old, cliff-hanger “Perils of Pauline” film serial. Because these little radio plays were highly melodramatic, they became popularly identified with Italian grand opera; because they were often sponsored by soap manufacturers, they ended up with the generic name, “soap opera.”
Until Herzog’s work, it was thought that the immense popularity of this format was largely with women of the lowest socioeconomic status who, in the restricted circumstances of their lives, needed a helpful escape to exotic places and romantic situations. A typical article from that period by two University of Chicago psychologists, “The Radio Day-Time Serial: Symbol Analysis” published in the Genetic Psychology Monographs, solemnly emphasized the positive, claiming that the soaps “function very much like the folk tale, expressing the hopes and fears of its female audience, and on the whole contribute to the integration of their lives into the world in which they live.”
Herzog found that there was, in fact, no correlation to socioeconomic status. What is more, there was surprisingly little correlation to content. The key factor — as Adorno and Benjamin’s theories suggested it would be — was the form itself of the serial; women were being effectively addicted to the format, not so much to be entertained or to escape, but to “find out what happens next week.” In fact, Herzog found, you could almost double the listenership of a radio play by dividing it into segments.
Modern readers will immediately recognize that this was not a lesson lost on the entertainment industry. Nowadays, the serial format has spread to children’s programming and high-budget prime time shows. The most widely watched shows in the history of television, remain the “Who Killed JR?” installment of Dallas, and the final episode of M*A*S*H, both of which were premised on a “what happens next?” format. Even feature films, like the Star Wars and Back to the Future trilogies, are now produced as serials, in order to lock in a viewership for the later installments. The humble daytime soap also retains its addictive qualities in the current age: 70% of all American women over eighteen now watch at least two of these shows each day, and there is a fast-growing viewership among men and college students of both sexes.
The Radio Project’s next major study was an investigation into the effects of Orson Welles’ Halloween 1938 radioplay based on H.G. Wells’ War of the Worlds. Six million people heard the broadcast realistically describing a Martian invasion force landing in rural New Jersey. Despite repeated and clear statements that the show was fictional, approximately 25% of the listeners thought it was real, some panicking outright. The Radio Project researchers found that a majority of the people who panicked did not think that men from Mars had invaded; they actually thought that the Germans had invaded.
It happened this way. The listeners had been psychologically pre-conditioned by radio reports from the Munich crisis earlier that year. During that crisis, CBS’s man in Europe, Edward R. Murrow, hit upon the idea of breaking into regular programming to present short news bulletins. For the first time in broadcasting, news was presented not in longer analytical pieces, but in short clips—what we now call “audio bites.” At the height of the crisis, these flashes got so numerous, that, in the words of Murrow’s producer Fred Friendly, “news bulletins were interrupting news bulletins.” As the listeners thought that the world was moving to the brink of war, CBS ratings rose dramatically. When Welles did his fictional broadcast later, after the crisis had receded, he used this news bulletin technique to give things verisimilitude: he started the broadcast by faking a standard dance-music program, which kept getting interrupted by increasingly terrifying “on the scene reports” from New Jersey. Listeners who panicked, reacted not to content, but to format; they heard “We interrupt this program for an emergency bulletin,” and “invasion,” and immediately concluded that Hitler had invaded. The soap opera technique, transposed to the news, had worked on a vast and unexpected scale.
Little Annie and the “Wagnerian Dream” of TV
In 1939, one of the numbers of the quarterly Journal of Applied Psychology was handed over to Adorno and the Radio Project to publish some of their findings. Their conclusion was that Americans had, over the last twenty years, become “radio-minded,” and that their listening had become so fragmented that repetition of format was the key to popularity. The play list determined the “hits”—a truth well known to organized crime, both then and now—and repetition could make any form of music or any performer, even a classical music performer, a “star.” As long as a familiar form or context was retained, almost any content would become acceptable. “Not only are hit songs, stars, and soap operas cyclically recurrent and rigidly invariable types,” said Adorno, summarizing this material a few years later, “but the specific content of the entertainment itself is derived from them and only appears to change. The details are interchangeable.”
The crowning achievement of the Radio Project was “Little Annie,” officially titled the Stanton-Lazersfeld Program Analyzer. Radio Project research had shown that all previous methods of preview polling were ineffectual. Up to that point, a preview audience listened to a show or watched a film, and then was asked general questions: did you like the show? what did you think of so-and-so’s performance? The Radio Project realized that this method did not take into account the test audience’s atomized perception of the subject, and demanded that they make a rational analysis of what was intended to be an irrational experience. So, the Project created a device in which each test audience member was supplied with a type of rheostat on which he could register the intensity of his likes or dislikes on a moment-to-moment basis. By comparing the individual graphs produced by the device, the operators could determine, not if the audience liked the whole show — which was irrelevant—but, which situations or characters produced a positive, if momentary, feeling state.
Little Annie transformed radio, film, and ultimately television programming. CBS still maintains program analyzer facilities in Hollywood and New York; it is said that results correlate 85% to ratings. Other networks and film studios have similar operations. This kind of analysis is responsible for the uncanny feeling you get when, seeing a new film or TV show, you think you have seen it all before. You have, many times. If a program analyzer indicates that, for instance, audiences were particularly titilated by a short scene in a World War II drama showing a certain type of actor kissing a certain type of actress, then that scene format will be worked into dozens of screenplays—transposed to the Middle Ages, to outer space, etc., etc.
The Radio Project also realized that television had the potential to intensify all of the effects that they had studied. TV technology had been around for some years, and had been exhibited at the 1936 World’s Fair in New York, but the only person to attempt serious utilization of the medium had been Adolf Hitler. The Nazis broadcast events from the 1936 Olympic Games “live” to communal viewing rooms around Germany; they were trying to expand on their great success in using radio to Nazify all aspects of German culture. Further plans for German TV development were sidetracked by war preparations.
Adorno understood this potential perfectly, writing in 1944:
Television aims at the synthesis of radio and film, and is held up only because the interested parties have not yet reached agreement, but its consequences will be quite enormous and promise to intensify the impoverishment of aesthetic matter so drastically, that by tomorrow the thinly veiled identity of all industrial culture products can come triumphantly out in the open, derisively fulfilling the Wagnerian dream of the Gesamtkunstwerk—the fusion of all the arts in one work.
The obvious point is this: the profoundly irrational forms of modern entertainment—the stupid and eroticized content of most TV and films, the fact that your local Classical music radio station programs Stravinsky next to Mozart—don’t have to be that way. They were designed to be that way. The design was so successful, that today, no one even questions the reasons or the origins. (see box)
III. Creating “Public Opinion”: The “Authoritarian Personality” Bogeyman and the OSS
The efforts of the Radio Project conspirators to manipulate the population, spawned the modern pseudoscience of public opinion polling, in order to gain greater control over the methods they were developing.
Today, public opinion polls, like the television news, have been completely integrated into our society. A “scientific survey” of what people are said to think about an issue can be produced in less than twenty-four hours. Some campaigns for high political office are completely shaped by polls; in fact, many politicians try to create issues which are themselves meaningless, but which they know will look good in the polls, purely for the purpose of enhancing their image as “popular.” Important policy decisions are made, even before the actual vote of the citizenry or the legislature, by poll results. Newspapers will occasionally write pious editorials calling on people to think for themselves, even as the newspaper’s business agent sends a check to the local polling organization.
The idea of “public opinion” is not new, of course. Plato spoke against it in his Republic over two millenia ago; Alexis de Tocqueville wrote at length of its influence over America in the early nineteenth century. But, nobody thought to measure public opinion before the twentieth century, and nobody before the 1930’s thought to use those measurements for decision-making.
It is useful to pause and reflect on the whole concept. The belief that public opinion can be a determinant of truth is philosophically insane. It precludes the idea of the rational individual mind. Every individual mind contains the divine spark of reason, and is thus capable of scientific discovery, and understanding the discoveries of others. The individual mind is one of the few things that cannot, therefore, be “averaged.” Consider: at the moment of creative discovery, it is possible, if not probable, that the scientist making the discovery is the only person to hold that opinion about nature, whereas everyone else has a different opinion, or no opinion. One can only imagine what a “scientifically-conducted survey” on Kepler’s model of the solar system would have been, shortly after he published the Harmony of the World: 2% for, 48% against, 50% no opinion.
These psychoanalytic survey techniques became standard, not only for the Frankfurt School, but also throughout American social science departments, particularly after the I.S.R. arrived in the United States. The methodology was the basis of the research piece for which the Frankfurt School is most well known, the “authoritarian personality” project. In 1942, I.S.R. director Max Horkheimer made contact with the American Jewish Committee, which asked him to set up a Department of Scientific Research within its organization. The American Jewish Committee also provided a large grant to study anti-Semitism in the American population. “Our aim,” wrote Horkheimer in the introduction to the study, “is not merely to describe prejudice, but to explain it in order to help in its eradication…. Eradication means reeducation scientifically planned on the basis of understanding scientifically arrived at.”
The A-S Scale
Ultimately, five volumes were produced for this study over the course of the late 1940’s; the most important was the last, The Authoritarian Personality, by Adorno, with the help of three Berkeley, California social psychologists.
In the 1930’s Erich Fromm had devised a questionnaire to be used to analyze German workers pychoanalytically as “authoritarian,” “revolutionary” or “ambivalent.” The heart of Adorno’s study was, once again, Fromm’s psychoanalytic scale, but with the positive end changed from a “revolutionary personality,” to a “democratic personality,” in order to make things more palatable for a postwar audience.
Nine personality traits were tested and measured, including:
* conventionalism—rigid adherence to conventional, middle-class values
* authoritarian aggression—the tendency to be on the look-out for, to condemn, reject and punish, people who violate conventional values
* projectivity—the disposition to believethat wild and dangerous things go on in the world
* sex—exaggerated concern with sexual goings-on.
From these measurements were constructed several scales: the E Scale (ethnocentrism), the PEC Scale (poltical and economic conservatism), the A-S Scale (anti-Semitism), and the F Scale (fascism). Using Rensis Lickerts’s methodology of weighting results, the authors were able to tease together an empirical definition of what Adorno called “a new anthropological type,” the authoritarian personality. The legerdemain here, as in all psychoanalytic survey work, is the assumption of a Weberian “type.” Once the type has been statistically determined, all behavior can be explained; if an anti-Semitic personality does not act in an anti-Semitic way, then he or she has an ulterior motive for the act, or is being discontinuous. The idea that a human mind is capable of transformation, is ignored.
The results of this very study can be interpreted in diametrically different ways. One could say that the study proved that the population of the U.S. was generally conservative, did not want to abandon a capitalist economy, believed in a strong family and that sexual promiscuity should be punished, thought that the postwar world was a dangerous place, and was still suspicious of Jews (and Blacks, Roman Catholics, Orientals, etc. — unfortunately true, but correctable in a social context of economic growth and cultural optimism). On the other hand, one could take the same results and prove that anti-Jewish pogroms and Nuremburg rallies were simmering just under the surface, waiting for a new Hitler to ignite them. Which of the two interpretations you accept is a political, not a scientific, decision. Horkheimer and Adorno firmly believed that all religions, Judaism included, were “the opiate of the masses.” Their goal was not the protection of Jews from prejudice, but the creation of a definition of authoritarianism and anti-Semitism which could be exploited to force the “scientifically planned reeducation” of Americans and Europeans away from the principles of Judeo-Christian civilization, which the Frankfurt School despised. In their theoretical writings of this period, Horkheimer and Adorno pushed the thesis to its most paranoid: just as capitalism was inherently fascistic, the philosophy of Christianity itself is the source of anti-Semitism. As Horkheimer and Adorno jointly wrote in their 1947 “Elements of Anti-Semitism”:
Christ, the spirit become flesh, is the deified sorcerer. Man’s self-reflection in the absolute, the humanization of God by Christ, is the proton pseudos [original falsehood]. Progress beyond Judaism is coupled with the assumption that the man Jesus has become God. The reflective aspect of Christianity, the intellectualization of magic, is the root of evil.
At the same time, Horkheimer could write in a more-popularized article titled “Anti-Semitism: A Social Disease,” that “at present, the only country where there does not seem to be any kind of anti-Semitism is Russia”[!].
This self-serving attempt to maximize paranoia was further aided by Hannah Arendt, who popularized the authoritarian personality research in her widely-read Origins of Totalitarianism. Arendt also added the famous rhetorical flourish about the “banality of evil” in her later Eichmann in Jerusalem: even a simple, shopkeeper-type like Eichmann can turn into a Nazi beast under the right psychological circumstances—every Gentile is suspect, psychoanalytically.
It is Arendt’s extreme version of the authoritarian personality thesis which is the operant philosophy of today’s Cult Awareness Network (CAN), a group which works with the U.S. Justice Department and the Anti-Defamation League of the B’nai B’rith, among others. Using standard Frankfurt School method, CAN identifies political and religious groups which are its political enemies, then re-labels them as a “cult,” in order to justify operations against them. (See box.)
The Public Opinion Explosion
Despite its unprovable central thesis of “psychoanalytic types,” the interpretive survey methodology of the Frankfurt School became dominant in the social sciences, and essentially remains so today. In fact, the adoption of these new, supposedly scientific techniques in the 1930’s brought about an explosion in public-opinion survey use, much of it funded by Madison Avenue. The major pollsters of today—A.C. Neilsen, George Gallup, Elmo Roper—started in the mid-1930’s, and began using the I.S.R. methods, especially given the success of the Stanton-Lazersfeld Program Analyzer. By 1936, polling activity had become sufficiently widespread to justify a trade association, the American Academy of Public Opinion Research at Princeton, headed by Lazersfeld; at the same time, the University of Chicago created the National Opinion Research Center. In 1940, the Office of Radio Research was turned into the Bureau of Applied Social Research, a division of Columbia University, with the indefatigable Lazersfeld as director.
After World War II, Lazersfeld especially pioneered the use of surveys to psychoanalyze American voting behavior, and by the 1952 Presidential election, Madison Avenue advertising agencies were firmly in control of Dwight Eisenhower’s campaign, utilizing Lazersfeld’s work. Nineteen fifty-two was also the first election under the influence of television, which, as Adorno had predicted eight years earlier, had grown to incredible influence in a very short time. Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborne — the fabled “BBD&O” ad agency—designed Ike’s campaign appearances entirely for the TV cameras, and as carefully as Hitler’s Nuremberg rallies; one-minute “spot” advertisements were pioneered to cater to the survey-determined needs of the voters.
This snowball has not stopped rolling since. The entire development of television and advertising in the 1950’s and 1960’s was pioneered by men and women who were trained in the Frankfurt School’s techniques of mass alienation. Frank Stanton went directly from the Radio Project to become the single most-important leader of modern television. Stanton’s chief rival in the formative period of TV was NBC’s Sylvester “Pat” Weaver; after a Ph.D. in “listening behavior,” Weaver worked with the Program Analyzer in the late 1930’s, before becoming a Young & Rubicam vice-president, then NBC’s director of programming, and ultimately the network’s president. Stanton and Weaver’s stories are typical.
Today, the men and women who run the networks, the ad agencies, and the polling organizations, even if they have never heard of Theodor Adorno, firmly believe in Adorno’s theory that the media can, and should, turn all they touch into “football.” Coverage of the 1991 Gulf War should make that clear.
The technique of mass media and advertising developed by the Frankfurt School now effectively controls American political campaigning. Campaigns are no longer based on political programs, but actually on alienation. Petty gripes and irrational fears are identified by psychoanalytic survey, to be transmogrified into “issues” to be catered to; the “Willy Horton” ads of the 1988 Presidential campaign, and the “flag-burning amendment,” are but two recent examples. Issues that will determine the future of our civilization, are scrupulously reduced to photo opportunities and audio bites—like Ed Murrow’s original 1930’s radio reports—where the dramatic effect is maximized, and the idea content is zero.
Who Is the Enemy?
Part of the influence of the authoritarian personality hoax in our own day also derives from the fact that, incredibly, the Frankfurt School and its theories were officially accepted by the U.S. government during World War II, and these Cominternists were responsible for determining who were America’s wartime, and postwar, enemies. In 1942, the Office of Strategic Services, America’s hastily-constructed espionage and covert operations unit, asked former Harvard president James Baxter to form a Research and Analysis (R&A) Branch under the group’s Intelligence Division. By 1944, the R&A Branch had collected such a large and prestigeous group of emigré scholars that H. Stuart Hughes, then a young Ph.D., said that working for it was “a second graduate education” at government expense. The Central European Section was headed by historian Carl Schorske; under him, in the all-important Germany/Austria Section, was Franz Neumann, as section chief, with Herbert Marcuse, Paul Baran, and Otto Kirchheimer, all I.S.R. veterans. Leo Lowenthal headed the German-language section of the Office of War Information; Sophie Marcuse, Marcuse’s wife, worked at the Office of Naval Intelligence. Also at the R&A Branch were: Siegfried Kracauer, Adorno’s old Kant instructor, now a film theorist; Norman O. Brown, who would become famous in the 1960’s by combining Marcuse’s hedonism theory with Wilhelm Reich’s orgone therapy to popularize “polymorphous perversity”; Barrington Moore, Jr., later a philosophy professor who would co-author a book with Marcuse; Gregory Bateson, the husband of anthropologist Margaret Mead (who wrote for the Frankfurt School’s journal), and Arthur Schlesinger, the historian who joined the Kennedy Administration. Marcuse’s first assignment was to head a team to identify both those who would be tried as war criminals after the war, and also those who were potential leaders of postwar Germany. In 1944, Marcuse, Neumann, and Kirchheimer wrote the Denazification Guide, which was later issued to officers of the U.S. Armed Forces occupying Germany, to help them identify and suppress pro-Nazi behaviors. After the armistice, the R&A Branch sent representatives to work as intelligence liaisons with the various occupying powers; Marcuse was assigned the U.S. Zone, Kirchheimer the French, and Barrington Moore the Soviet. In the summer of 1945, Neumann left to become chief of research for the Nuremburg Tribunal. Marcuse remained in and around U.S. intelligence into the early 1950’s, rising to the chief of the Central European Branch of the State Department’s Office of Intelligence Research, an office formally charged with “planning and implementing a program of positive-intelligence research … to meet the intelligence requirements of the Central Intelligence Agency and other authorized agencies.” During his tenure as a U.S. government official, Marcuse supported the division of Germany into East and West, noting that this would prevent an alliance between the newly liberated left-wing parties and the old, conservative industrial and business layers. In 1949, he produced a 532-page report, “The Potentials of World Communism” (declassified only in 1978), which suggested that the Marshall Plan economic stabilization of Europe would limit the recruitment potential of Western Europe’s Communist Parties to acceptable levels, causing a period of hostile co-existence with the Soviet Union, marked by confrontation only in faraway places like Latin America and Indochina—in all, a surprisingly accurate forecast. Marcuse left the State Department with a Rockefeller Foundation grant to work with the various Soviet Studies departments which were set up at many of America’s top universities after the war, largely by R&A Branch veterans.
At the same time, Max Horkheimer was doing even greater damage. As part of the denazification of Germany suggested by the R&A Branch, U.S. High Commissioner for Germany John J. McCloy, using personal discretionary funds, brought Horkheimer back to Germany to reform the German university system. In fact, McCloy asked President Truman and Congress to pass a bill granting Horkheimer, who had become a naturalized American, dual citizenship; thus, for a brief period, Horkheimer was the only person in the world to hold both German and U.S. citizenship. In Germany, Horkheimer began the spadework for the full-blown revival of the Frankfurt School in that nation in the late 1950’s, including the training of a whole new generation of anti-Western civilization scholars like Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jürgen Habermas, who would have such destructive influence in 1960’s Germany. In a period of American history when some individuals were being hounded into unemployment and suicide for the faintest aroma of leftism, Frankfurt School veterans—all with superb Comintern credentials — led what can only be called charmed lives. America had, to an incredible extent, handed the determination of who were the nation’s enemies, over to the nation’s own worst enemies.
IV. The Aristotelian Eros: Marcuse and the CIA’s Drug Counterculture
In 1989, Hans-Georg Gadamer, a protégé of Martin Heidegger and the last of the original Frankfurt School generation, was asked to provide an appreciation of his own work for the German newspaper, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. He wrote,
One has to conceive of Aristotle’s ethics as a true fulfillment of the Socratic challenge, which Plato had placed at the center of his dialogues on the Socratic question of the good…. Plato described the idea of the good … as the ultimate and highest idea, which is supposedly the highest principle of being for the universe, the state, and the human soul. Against this Aristotle opposed a decisive critique, under the famous formula, “Plato is my friend, but the truth is my friend even more.” He denied that one could consider the idea of the good as a universal principle of being, which is supposed to hold in the same way for theoretical knowledge as for practical knowledge and human activity.
This statement not only succinctly states the underlying philosophy of the Frankfurt School, it also suggests an inflection point around which we can order much of the philosophical combat of the last two millenia. In the simplest terms, the Aristotelian correction of Plato sunders physics from metaphysics, relegating the Good to a mere object of speculation about which “our knowledge remains only a hypothesis,” in the words of Wilhelm Dilthey, the Frankfurt School’s favorite philosopher. Our knowledge of the “real world,” as Dilthey, Nietzsche, and other precursors of the Frankfurt School were wont to emphasize, becomes erotic, in the broadest sense of that term, as object fixation. The universe becomes a collection of things which each operate on the basis of their own natures (that is, genetically), and through interaction between themselves (that is, mechanistically). Science becomes the deduction of the appropriate categories of these natures and interactions. Since the human mind is merely a sensorium, waiting for the Newtonian apple to jar it into deduction, humanity’s relationship to the world (and vice versa) becomes an erotic attachment to objects. The comprehension of the universal—the mind’s seeking to be the living image of the living God—is therefore illusory. That universal either does not exist, or it exists incomprehensibly as a deus ex machina; that is, the Divine exists as a superaddition to the physical universe — God is really Zeus, flinging thunderbolts into the world from some outside location. (Or, perhaps more appropriately: God is really Cupid, letting loose golden arrows to make objects attract, and leaden arrows to make objects repel.) The key to the entire Frankfurt School program, from originator Lukacs on, is the “liberation” of Aristotelian eros, to make individual feeling states psychologically primary. When the I.S.R. leaders arrived in the United States in the mid-1930’s, they exulted that here was a place which had no adequate philosophical defenses against their brand of Kulturpessimismus [cultural pessimism]. However, although the Frankfurt School made major inroads in American intellectual life before World War II, that influence was largely confined to academia and to radio; and radio, although important, did not yet have the overwhelming influence on social life that it would acquire during the war. Furthermore, America’s mobilization for the war, and the victory against fascism, sidetracked the Frankfurt School schedule; America in 1945 was almost sublimely optimistic, with a population firmly convinced that a mobilized republic, backed by science and technology, could do just about anything. The fifteen years after the war, however, saw the domination of family life by the radio and television shaped by the Frankfurt School, in a period of political erosion in which the great positive potential of America degenerated to a purely negative posture against the real and, oftentimes manipulated, threat of the Soviet Union. At the same time, hundreds of thousands of the young generation—the so-called baby boomers—were entering college and being exposed to the Frankfurt School’s poison, either directly or indirectly. It is illustrative, that by 1960, sociology had become the most popular course of study in American universities. Indeed, when one looks at the first stirrings of the student rebellion at the beginning of the 1960’s, like the speeches of the Berkeley Free Speech Movement or the Port Huron Statement which founded the Students for a Democratic Society, one is struck with how devoid of actual content these discussions were. There is much anxiety about being made to conform to the system—”I am a human being; do not fold, spindle, or mutilate” went an early Berkeley slogan—but it is clear that the “problems” cited derive much more from required sociology textbooks, than from the real needs of the society.
The CIA’s Psychedelic Revolution
The simmering unrest on campus in 1960 might well too have passed or had a positive outcome, were it not for the traumatic decapitation of the nation through the Kennedy assassination, plus the simultaneous introduction of widespread drug use. Drugs had always been an “analytical tool” of the nineteenth century Romantics, like the French Symbolists, and were popular among the European and American Bohemian fringe well into the post-World War II period. But, in the second half of the 1950’s, the CIA and allied intelligence services began extensive experimentation with the hallucinogen LSD to investigate its potential for social control. It has now been documented that millions of doses of the chemical were produced and disseminated under the aegis of the CIA’s Operation MK-Ultra. LSD became the drug of choice within the agency itself, and was passed out freely to friends of the family, including a substantial number of OSS veterans. For instance, it was OSS Research and Analysis Branch veteran Gregory Bateson who “turned on” the Beat poet Allen Ginsberg to a U.S. Navy LSD experiment in Palo Alto, California. Not only Ginsberg, but novelist Ken Kesey and the original members of the Grateful Dead rock group opened the doors of perception courtesy of the Navy. The guru of the “psychedelic revolution,” Timothy Leary, first heard about hallucinogens in 1957 from Life magazine (whose publisher, Henry Luce, was often given government acid, like many other opinion shapers), and began his career as a CIA contract employee; at a 1977 “reunion” of acid pioneers, Leary openly admitted, “everything I am, I owe to the foresight of the CIA.” Hallucinogens have the singular effect of making the victim asocial, totally self-centered, and concerned with objects. Even the most banal objects take on the “aura” which Benjamin had talked about, and become timeless and delusionarily profound. In other words, hallucinogens instantaneously achieve a state of mind identical to that prescribed by the Frankfurt School theories. And, the popularization of these chemicals created a vast psychological lability for bringing those theories into practice. Thus, the situation at the beginning of the 1960’s represented a brilliant re-entry point for the Frankfurt School, and it was fully exploited. One of the crowning ironies of the “Now Generation” of 1964 on, is that, for all its protestations of utter modernity, none of its ideas or artifacts was less than thirty years old. The political theory came completely from the Frankfurt School; Lucien Goldmann, a French radical who was a visiting professor at Columbia in 1968, was absolutely correct when he said of Herbert Marcuse in 1969 that “the student movements … found in his works and ultimately in his works alone the theoretical formulation of their problems and aspirations [emphasis in original].” The long hair and sandals, the free love communes, the macrobiotic food, the liberated lifestyles, had been designed at the turn of the century, and thoroughly field-tested by various, Frankfurt School-connected New Age social experiments like the Ascona commune before 1920. (See box.) Even Tom Hayden’s defiant “Never trust anyone over thirty,” was merely a less-urbane version of Rupert Brooke’s 1905, “Nobody over thirty is worth talking to.” The social planners who shaped the 1960’s simply relied on already-available materials.
Eros and Civilization
The founding document of the 1960’s counterculture, and that which brought the Frankfurt School’s “revolutionary messianism” of the 1920’s into the 1960’s, was Marcuse’s Eros and Civilization, originally published in 1955 and funded by the Rockefeller Foundation. The document masterfully sums up the Frankfurt School ideology of Kulturpessimismus in the concept of “dimensionality.” In one of the most bizarre perversions of philosophy, Marcuse claims to derive this concept from Friedrich Schiller. Schiller, whom Marcuse purposefully misidentifies as the heir of Immanuel Kant, discerned two dimensions in humanity: a sensuous instinct and an impulse toward form. Schiller advocated the harmonization of these two instincts in man in the form of a creative play instinct. For Marcuse, on the other hand, the only hope to escape the one-dimensionality of modern industrial society was to liberate the erotic side of man, the sensuous instinct, in rebellion against “technological rationality.” As Marcuse would say later (1964) in his One-Dimensional Man, “A comfortable, smooth, reasonable, democratic unfreedom prevails in advanced industrial civilization, a token of technical progress.” This erotic liberation he misidentifies with Schiller’s “play instinct,” which, rather than being erotic, is an expression of charity, the higher concept of love associated with true creativity. Marcuse’s contrary theory of erotic liberation is something implicit in Sigmund Freud, but not explicitly emphasized, except for some Freudian renegades like Wilhelm Reich and, to a certain extent, Carl Jung. Every aspect of culture in the West, including reason itself, says Marcuse, acts to repress this: “The totalitarian universe of technological rationality is the latest transmutation of the idea of reason.” Or: “Auschwitz continues to haunt, not the memory but the accomplishments of man—the space flights, the rockets and missiles, the pretty electronics plants….”
This erotic liberation should take the form of the “Great Refusal,” a total rejection of the “capitalist” monster and all his works, including “technological” reason, and “ritual-authoritarian language.” As part of the Great Refusal, mankind should develop an “aesthetic ethos,” turning life into an aesthetic ritual, a “life-style” (a nonsense phrase which came into the language in the 1960’s under Marcuse’s influence). With Marcuse representing the point of the wedge, the 1960’s were filled with obtuse intellectual justifications of contentless adolescent sexual rebellion. Eros and Civilization was reissued as an inexpensive paperback in 1961, and ran through several editions; in the preface to the 1966 edition, Marcuse added that the new slogan, “Make Love, Not War,” was exactly what he was talking about: “The fight for eros is a political fight [emphasis in original].” In 1969, he noted that even the New Left’s obsessive use of obscenities in its manifestoes was part of the Great Refusal, calling it “a systematic linguistic rebellion, which smashes the ideological context in which the words are employed and defined.” Marcuse was aided by psychoanalyst Norman O. Brown, his OSS protege, who contributed Life Against Death in 1959, and Love’s Body in 1966—calling for man to shed his reasonable, “armored” ego, and replace it with a “Dionysian body ego,” that would embrace the instinctual reality of polymorphous perversity, and bring man back into “union with nature.” The books of Reich, who had claimed that Nazism was caused by monogamy, were re-issued. Reich had died in an American prison, jailed for taking money on the claim that cancer could be cured by rechanneling “orgone energy.” Primary education became dominated by Reich’s leading follower, A.S. Neill, a Theosophical cult member of the 1930’s and militant atheist, whose educational theories demanded that students be taught to rebel against teachers who are, by nature, authoritarian. Neill’s book Summerhill sold 24,000 copies in 1960, rising to 100,000 in 1968, and 2 million in 1970; by 1970, it was required reading in 600 university courses, making it one of the most influential education texts of the period, and still a benchmark for recent writers on the subject. Marcuse led the way for the complete revival of the rest of the Frankfurt School theorists, re-introducing the long-forgotten Lukacs to America. Marcuse himself became the lightning rod for attacks on the counterculture, and was regularly attacked by such sources as the Soviet daily Pravda, and then-California Governor Ronald Reagan. The only critique of any merit at the time, however, was one by Pope Paul VI, who in 1969 named Marcuse (an extraordinary step, as the Vatican usually refrains from formal denunciations of living individuals), along with Freud, for their justification of “disgusting and unbridled expressions of eroticism”; and called Marcuse’s theory of liberation, “the theory which opens the way for license cloaked as liberty … an aberration of instinct.” The eroticism of the counterculture meant much more than free love and a violent attack on the nuclear family. It also meant the legitimization of philosophical eros. People were trained to see themselves as objects, determined by their “natures.” The importance of the individual as a person gifted with the divine spark of creativity, and capable of acting upon all human civilization, was replaced by the idea that the person is important because he or she is black, or a woman, or feels homosexual impulses. This explains the deformation of the civil rights movement into a “black power” movement, and the transformation of the legitimate issue of civil rights for women into feminism. Discussion of women’s civil rights was forced into being just another “liberation cult,” complete with bra-burning and other, sometimes openly Astarte-style, rituals; a review of Kate Millet’s Sexual Politics (1970) and Germaine Greer’s The Female Eunuch (1971), demonstrates their complete reliance on Marcuse, Fromm, Reich, and other Freudian extremists.
The Bad Trip
This popularization of life as an erotic, pessimistic ritual did not abate, but in fact deepened over the twenty years leading to today; it is the basis of the horror we see around us. The heirs of Marcuse and Adorno completely dominate the universities, teaching their own students to replace reason with “Politically Correct” ritual exercises. There are very few theoretical books on arts, letters, or language published today in the United States or Europe which do not openly acknowledge their debt to the Frankfort School.
The witchhunt on today’s campuses is merely the implementation of Marcuse’s concept of “repressive toleration”—”tolerance for movements from the left, but intolerance for movements from the right”—enforced by the students of the Frankfurt School, now become the professors of women’s studies and Afro-American studies. The most erudite spokesman for Afro-American studies, for instance, Professor Cornell West of Princeton, publicly states that his theories are derived from Georg Lukacs. At the same time, the ugliness so carefully nurtured by the Frankfurt School pessimists, has corrupted our highest cultural endeavors. One can hardly find a performance of a Mozart opera, which has not been utterly deformed by a director who, following Benjamin and the I.S.R., wants to “liberate the erotic subtext.” You cannot ask an orchestra to perform Schönberg and Beethoven on the same program, and maintain its integrity for the latter. And, when our highest culture becomes impotent, popular culture becomes openly bestial. One final image: American and European children daily watch films like Nightmare on Elm Street and Total Recall, or television shows comparable to them. A typical scene in one of these will have a figure emerge from a television set; the skin of his face will realistically peel away to reveal a hideously deformed man with razor-blade fingers, fingers which start growing to several feet in length, and—suddenly—the victim is slashed to bloody ribbons. This is not entertainment. This is the deeply paranoid hallucination of the LSD acid head. The worst of what happened in the 1960’s is now daily fare. Owing to the Frankfurt School and its co-conspirators, the West is on a “bad trip” from which it is not being allowed to come down.
The principles through which Western Judeo-Christian civilization was built, are now no longer dominant in our society; they exist only as a kind of underground resistance movement. If that resistance is ultimately submerged, then the civilization will not survive—and, in our era of incurable pandemic disease and nuclear weapons, the collapse of Western civilization will very likely take the rest of the world with it to Hell.
The way out is to create a Renaissance. If that sounds grandiose, it is nonetheless what is needed. A renaissance means, to start again; to discard the evil, and inhuman, and just plain stupid, and to go back, hundreds or thousands of years, to the ideas which allow humanity to grow in freedom and goodness. Once we have identified those core beliefs, we can start to rebuild civilization.
Ultimately, a new Renaissance will rely on scientists, artists, and composers, but in the first moment, it depends on seemingly ordinary people who will defend the divine spark of reason in themselves, and tolerate no less in others. Given the successes of the Frankfurt School and its New Dark Age sponsors, these ordinary individuals, with their belief in reason and the difference between right and wrong, will be “unpopular.” But, no really good idea was ever popular, in the beginning.
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This timeline, prepared by a researcher of our Quantum Future School, [JH] with many linked sources, barely scratches the surface. It is our hope that readers will do additional research, and provide us with more links and connections to this spider web of Cosmic COINTELPRO that has blanketed the Earth with Lies, deception, confusion and tricks and traps – the magnets of Impending Global Destruction. See also: Star of Sorcerer’s for additional connections.
A far more extensive timeline could be created by including the information from Freddy Silva’s book on Crop Circles, Richard Dolan’s book on UFOs and the National Security State, and the research included in the Adventures Series. The reader will also want to read “To Be, or Not to Be” for more background. We will continue to work on the project in hopes that by seeing the various threads together, more people will realize just how it all connects and how totally we have been duped, and how Evil the plans of the Controllers truly are.
Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been treated.
A Humanist Manifesto is published with 34 prominent signatories at the time
http://www.priestsforlife.org/prochoice/humanistmanifesto.htm [This link no longer works, but the researcher can enter “humanist manifesto” into Google and get the cached page.]
“A method for Remote Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System”, a monograph by Drs. E. L. Chaffee and R. U. Light
Experiments in Distant Influence, book by Soviet Professor Leonid L. Vasiliev. Vasiliev also wrote an article, “Critical Evaluation of the Hypnogenic Method” concerning the work of Dr. I. F. Tomashevsky on experiments in remote control of the brain.
The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths occurred within poverty-stricken black populations.
Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs to combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.
Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty.
In response to Japan’s full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD.
U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks and clothing. Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and lewisite.
After World War II, the Allies discovered the Japanese had been developing a “death ray” utilizing very short radio waves focused into a high power beam. Tests were done on animals. The Japanese denied ever testing it on humans. (From the Strategic Bombing Survey, Imperial War Museum, London. Cited with photocopies in “Japanese Death Ray”, by Peter Lewis, Resonance#11, pp 5-9)
Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret government projects in the United States.
“Program F” is implemented by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride, it is found, causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system but much of the information is squelched in the name of national security because of fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.
Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word “experiments” to “investigations” or “observations” whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation’s veteran’s hospitals.
Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.
The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.
Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical problems and mortality rates.
In an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from ships over San Francisco. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms.
The French conducted research on infrasonic weapons. (From “The Road From Armageddon”, by Peter Lewis, Resonance#13, pp 9-14)
The newly-formed CIA initiated studies in mind control programs “in 1950, with Project BLUEBIRD, rechristened ARTICHOKE in 1951. To establish a ‘ cover story’ for this research, the CIA funded a propaganda effort designed to convince the world that the Communist Bloc had devised insidious new methods of re-shaping the human will; the CIA’s own efforts could therefore, if exposed, be explained as an attempt to ‘ catch up’ with Soviet and Chinese work. The primary promoter of this ‘ line’ was one Edward Hunter, a CIA contract employee operating under-cover as a journalist, and, later, a prominent member of the John Birch society.”
“Hunter offered ‘ brainwashing’ as the explanation for the numerous confessions signed by American prisoners of war during the Korean War and (generally) UN-recanted upon the prisoners’ repatriation. These confessions alleged that the United States used germ warfare in the Korean conflict, a claim which the American public of the time found impossible to accept. Many years later, however, investigative reporters discovered that Japan’s germ warfare specialists (who had wreaked incalculable terror on the conquered Chinese during WWII) had been mustered into the American national security apparatus — and that the knowledge gleaned from Japan’s horrifying germ warfare experiments probably WAS used in Korea, just as the ‘ brainwashed’ soldiers had indicated.
Thus, we now know that the entire brainwashing scare of the 1950s constituted a CIA hoax perpetrated upon the American public: CIA deputy director Richard Helms admitted as much when, in 1963, he told the Warren Commission that “Soviet mind control research consistently lagged years behind American efforts.”
Johnny Appleseed of LSD Alfred Hubbard first tries LSD. An OSS officer in WW II Hubbard first took LSD in 1951, and proceeded to turn on several individuals prominent in LSD research, including Dr. Humphrey Osmond, Myron Stolaroff , and Aldous Huxley, earning him the title of “the Johnny Appleseed of LSD”. (Lee, Martin and Schlain, Bruce, Acid Dreams, Grove Press, 1985, pg 44)
circa 1951 Hubbard later did undercover work for several agencies, including the FDA and FBI. He reportedly tried (and failed) to turn on J. Edgar Hoover. He introduced LSD to many high-ranking intelligence officers. In the early 1950’s, he refused an offer to join the CIA. (Lee and Schlain, pg 52) In all, it is estimated that Hubbard introduced LSD to over 6,000 individuals. He worked until 1965 at the International Foundation for Advanced Study (mis-identified here, I think, as the International Federation for Advanced Studies) (Fahey, Todd Brendan, The Original Captain Trips”, High Times, November 1991)
Fahey describes Hubbard’s work at SRI differently, placing him with the Alternative Futures Project, which sought to turn on the world’s political and business leaders. He left SRI in 1974, and died on August 31, 1982. (Fahey)
Department of Defense begins open air tests using disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there is concern that people in the surrounding areas have been exposed.
As a child in 1952, Jack Sarfatti claims to have received phone calls from the mechanical voice of a conscious computer aboard a spaceship, recruiting him along with 400 others for some special project. These calls have similarities to the mechanical voice which talked to Andrijah Puharich via his tape recorder. Sarfatti was later associated with Puharich.
Puharich first contacts The Nine a group of channeled being via a medium.
In 1952, during the CIA’s MK-ULTRA mind control program, John Lilly briefed the intelligence community on his work to map out the brains of animals using implanted electrodes. He abandoned this line of work because he felt it was unethical.
In 1952 John Lilly studied the effects of sensory deprivation tanks, and also briefed the intelligence community with his progress. Lilly refused to let any of his work be classified, and ended up leaving the National Institute of Health when he found that he could not work without the interference of the government
Project Moonstruck, CIA:
Electronic implants in brain and teeth
Targeting: Long range
Implanted during surgery or surreptitiously during abduction
Frequency range: HF – ELF transceiver implants
purpose: Tracking, mind and behavior control, conditioning, programming, covert operations
Functional Basis: Electronic Stimulation of the Brain, E.S.B.
John C. Lilly, when asked by the director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to brief the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), National Security Agency (NSA), and the various military intelligence services on his work using electrodes to stimulate directly the pleasure and pain centers in the brain, refused. He said, “Dr. Antione Redmond, using our techniques in Paris, has demonstrated that this method of stimulation on the brain can be applied to the human without help of the neurosurgeon … This means that anybody with the proper apparatus can carry this out covertly, with no external signs that electrodes have been used in that person. I feel that if this technique got into the hands of a secret agency, they would have total control over a human being and be able to change his beliefs extremely quickly, leaving little evidence of what they had done.” (From “Mind Control and the American Government”, by Martin Cannon in Lobster#23, pp 2-10. Cannon quotes Lilly from his book, The Scientist, Berkeley, Ronin publishers, 1988, also Bantam Books 1981. Research by Peter Lewis.)
After a statement like that of Dr. Lilly’s, how long do you think it would take the agencies, FBI, CIA, NSA, etc. to contact Dr. Redmond in Paris?
Project MK-ULTRA, CIA:
Drugs, electronics and electroshock
Targeting: Short range
Frequencies: VHF HF UHF modulated at ELF
Transmission and Reception: Local production
Purpose: Programming behavior, creation of “cyborg” mentalities
Effects: narcoleptic trance, programming by suggestion
Pseudonym: Project Artichoke
Functional Basis: Electronic Dissolution of Memory, E.D.O.M. (Disinfo???)
When the CIA’s mind control program was transferred from the Office of Security to the Technical Services Staff (TSS) in 1953, the name changed again — to MKULTRA….(Later still, in 1962, mind control research was transferred to the Office of Research and Development; project cryptonyms remain unrevealed. What was studied? Everything — including hypnosis, conditioning, sensory deprivation, drugs, religious cults, microwaves, psychosurgery, brain implants, and even ESP. When MKULTRA ‘ leaked’ to the public during the great CIA investigations of the 1970s, public attention focused most heavily on drug experimentation and the work with ESP. Mystery still shrouds another area of study, the area which seems to have most interested ORD: psychoelectronics
Martin Cannon, The Controllers: A New Hypothesis of Alien Abduction:
“The MK ULTRA program was a covert behavior modification program run by the CIA in the early 1950s – with the purpose of finding ways to make men more suggestible – and involving the use of pain, drugs and hypnosis on unsuspecting human guinea pigs.
The first person to publicly expose the CIA’s use of “pain-drug-hypnosis” was L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology, who wrote in his 1951 book Science of Survival that it had become so extensively employed in espionage work that it was long past the time people should have become alarmed about it.
“Mr. Hubbard’s statement was found to be true in the 1970s, when the CIA’s program became public knowledge after the freedom of Information Act enabled investigators to document the agency’s inhumane and grotesque experiments on human subjects. The ensuing outcry over the use of mind-bending drugs, which combined with electric shock caused the deaths or maiming of untold numbers of people, drew comparisons between the CIA and the infamous Nazi doctors and led to Congressional hearings into the intelligence agency.” – firstname.lastname@example.org (probably from the Scientology Guardians Organization
U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to determine how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents.
Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.
(circa) Dr Louis West, friends with Aldous Huxley. It was Huxley who suggested that West combine LSD and hypnosis in his experiments. (Lee, Martin and Schlain, Bruce, Acid Dreams, Grove Press, 1985, pg 48)
West was an Air Force Major, chairman of the Psychiatry Department of UCLA, director of the Neuro-Psychiatric Institute, expert in hypnosis.
West was a veteran of the CIA’s MKULTRA mind control program, and worked on interrogation techniques using hypnosis and LSD. West once killed an elephant by grossly overestimating a dose of LSD (elsewhere, I have heard that the tranquilizers required to calm the animal caused its death).
West also studied the returning American POWs from Korea for the effects of brainwashing. (Scheflin, Alan and Opton, Edward Jr., The Mind Manipulators, Paddington Press Ltd, 1978, pg 149-50)
Morris K. Jessup publised The Case For the UFO
The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to infect human populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria withdrawn from the Army’s biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, Fl.
Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.
U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with Yellow Fever over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test, Army agents posing as public health officials test victims for effects.
It has now been documented that millions of doses of LSD were produced and disseminated under the aegis of the CIA’s Operation MK-Ultra. LSD became the drug of choice within the agency itself, and was passed out freely to friends of the family, including a substantial number of OSS veterans. For instance, it was OSS Research and Analysis Branch veteran Gregory Bateson who ‘turned on’ the Beat poet Allen Ginsberg to a U.S. Navy LSD experiment in Palo Alto, California. Not only Ginsberg, but novelist Ken Kesey and the original members of the Grateful Dead rock group opened the doors of perception courtesy of the Navy. The guru of the ‘psychedelic revolution’, Timothy Leary, first heard about hallucinogens in 1957 from Life magazine (whose publisher, Henry Luce, was often given government acid, like many other opinion shapers), and began his career as a CIA contract employee; at a 1977 ‘reunion’ of acid pioneers, Leary openly admitted, ‘everything I am, I owe to the foresight of the CIA’.” [Michael J. Minnicino, “The New Dark Age The Frankfurt School and ‘Political Correctness'”, Fidelio, v1 #1]
Between August and September 1958, the US Navy exploded three fission type nuclear bombs 480 km above the South Atlantic Ocean, in the part of the lower Van Allen Belt closest to the earth’s surface. In addition, two hydrogen bombs were detonated 160 km over Johnston Island in the Pacific. The military called this “the biggest scientific experiment ever undertaken.” It was designed by the US Department of Defense and the US Atomic Energy Commission, under the code name Project Argus. The purpose appears to be to assess the impact of high altitude nuclear explosions on radio transmission and radar operations because of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP), and to increase understanding of the geomagnetic field and the behavior of the charged particles in it.
This gigantic experiment created new (inner) magnetic radiation belts encompassing almost the whole earth, and injected sufficient electrons and other energetic particles into the ionosphere to cause world wide effects. The electrons traveled back and forth along magnetic force lines, causing an artificial “aurora” when striking the atmosphere near the North Pole.
The US Military planned to create a “telecommunications shield” in the ionosphere, reported in 13-20 August 1961, Keesings Historisch Archief (K.H.A.). This shield would be created “in the ionosphere at 3,000 km height, by bringing into orbit 350,000 million copper needles, each 2-4 cm long [total weight 16 kg], forming a belt 10 km thick and 40 km wide, the needles spaced about 100 m apart.” This was designed to replace the ionosphere “because telecommunications are impaired by magnetic storms and solar flares.” The US planned to add to the number of copper needles if the experiment proved to be successful. This plan was strongly opposed by the Intentional Union of Astronomers.
Project Orion, U.S.A.F:
Drugs, hypnosis, and ESB
Targeting: Short range, in person
Frequencies: ELF Modulation
Transmission and Reception: Radar, microwaves, modulated at ELF frequencies
urpose: Top security personnel debriefing, programming, insure security and loyalty
While Lilly implies that he left the NIH because of unethical government interference, his Communications Research Institute (founded in the 1958 to study dolphins) was partially funded by the Air Force, NASA, NIHM, the National Science Foundation, and the Navy. He was assisted in this work by Gregory Bateson
While experimenting with sensory deprivation and LSD and ketamine, Lilly came to believe that he was in psychic contact with the aliens of what he called the Earth Coincidence Control Office. The aliens were guiding events in Lilly’s life to lead him to work with dolphins, which were psychic conduits between aliens and humans. The aliens are acting for the survival of organic lifeforms against artificial intelligences, called solid state lifeforms
LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army’s Chemical Warfare Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.
Huxley speeches in London on “Latent Human Potential.” COINTELPRO is kicked off and the games begin.
Fine-tuned electromagnetic subliminal programming
Targeting: Long Range
Frequencies: VHF HF UHF Modulated at ELF
Transmission and Reception: Television antennae, radio antennae, power lines, mattress spring coils, modulation on 60 Hz wiring.
Purpose: programming behavior and attitudes in general population
Effects: fatigue, mood swings, behavior dysfunction and social criminality, mood swings
Pseudonym: “Deep Sleep”, R.H.I.C.
Hal Puthoff, according to author Jim Schnabel (and confirmed by Dr. Puthoff), served at the NSA in the early 1960’s during his tour with the Navy, not the Army as McRae reported, and later stayed on as a civillian. Joined SRI in 1971 as a specialist in laser physics. Served as an officer in the Navy from 1960-63 at Ft. Meade
Headlines read “Khrushchev Says Soviets Will Cut Forces a Third; Sees ‘Fantastic Weapon’ “. (From article of same title, by Max Frankel, New York Times, Jan. 15, 1960, p 1 as cited in “Tesla’s Electro- magnetics and Its Soviet Weaponization”, paper by T. E. Bearden.)
The International Foundation for Advanced study is established. Founded by Myron Stolaroffand Paul Kurtz, and located in Menlo Park, California. Studied the effects of LSD and mescaline from 1961 to 1965.
(Anderson, Walter Truett, The Upstart Spring, Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1983)
The foundation also offered LSD therapy for $500 a session. In late 1961, the foundation released The Psychedelic Experience: A New Concept in Psychotherapy. (Stevens, Jay, Storming Heaven, Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987, pg 177-9)
Also involved with the IFAS were Alfred Hubbard, Vice President Willis Harman, Charles Savage, Robert Mogar, James Fadiman, and Ethel Savage; with Hubbard reportedly supplying the drugs (then legal for research).
The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of the european population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT.
The Esalen Institute was founded in 1964 by Mike Murphy and Dick Price out of Murphy’s family resort. Murphy and Price had been running seminars at the resort beginning in 1962, with speakers gathered through an expanding network of contacts, beginning with Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley, George Bateson, Gerald Heard, and others. [see Anderson, Walter Truett, The Upstart Spring, Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1983 for an expansive history of Esalen]
While an engineering professor at Stanford University, Harman led a 1962 conference on human potentiality at the Esalen Institute called “The Expanding Vision”. Harman went on later to head IONS with Astronaut Edgar Mitchell.
On July 9, 1962, the US began a further series of experiments with the ionosphere. From their description: “one kiloton device, at a height of 60 km and one megaton and one multi-megaton, at several hundred kilometers height” (K.H.A., 29 June 1962). These tests seriously disturbed the lower Van Allen Belt, substantially altering its shape and intensity.
“In this experiment the inner Van Allen Belt will be practically destroyed for a period of time; particles from the Belt will be transported to the atmosphere. It is anticipated that the earth’s magnetic field will be disturbed over long distances for several hours, preventing radio communication. The explosion in the inner radiation belt will create an artificial dome of polar light that will be visible from Los Angeles” (K.H.A. 11 May 1962).
A Fijian Sailor, present at this nuclear explosion, told me that the whole sky was on fire and he thought it would be the end of the world. This was the experiment which called forth the strong protest of the Queen’s Astronomer, Sir Martin Ryle in the UK.
“The ionosphere [according to the under-standing at that time] that part of the atmosphere between 65 and 80 km and 280- 320 km height, will be disrupted by mechanical forces caused by the pressure wave following the explosion. At the same time, large quantities of ionizing radiation will be released, further ionizing the gaseous components of the atmosphere at this height. This ionization effect is strengthened by the radiation from the fission products…
The lower Van Allen Belt, consisting of charged particles that move along the geomagnetic field lines… will similarly be disrupted. As a result of the explosion, this field will be locally destroyed, while countless new electrons will be introduced into the lower belt” (K.H.A. 11 May 1962).
“On 19 July… NASA announced that as a consequence of the high altitude nuclear test of July 9, a new radiation belt had been formed, stretching from a height of about 400 km to 1600 km; it can be seen as a temporary extension of the lower Van Allen Belt” (K.H.A. 5 August 1962).
As explained in the Encyclopedia Britannica:
“… Starfish made a much wider belt [than Project Argus] that extends from low altitude out past L=3 [i.e. three earth radiuses or about 13,000 km above the surface of the earth].”
Later in 1962, the USSR undertook similar planetary experiments, creating three new radiation belts between 7,000 and 13,000 km above the earth. According to the Encyclopedia, the electron fluxes in the lower Van Allen Belt have changed markedly since the 1962 high- altitude nuclear explosions by the US and USSR, never returning to their former state. According to American scientists, it could take many hundreds of years for the Van Allen Belts to destabilize at their normal levels. (Research done by: Nigel Harle, Borderland Archives, Cortenbachstraat 32, 6136 CH Sittard, Netherlands.)
Hal Puthoff Worked for eight years in the Microwave Laboratory at Stanford University till 1971
“A project in the U.S. called Project Pandora … was undertaken in which chimpanzees were exposed to microwave radiation. The man who was in charge of this project said, ‘the potential for exerting a degree of control on human behaviour by low level microwave radiation seems to exist’ and he urged that the effects of microwaves be studied for ‘possible weapons applications’ “. (From “Electromagnetic Pollution: A Little Known Health Hazard. A new means of control?” by Kim Besley, Great Britain, p 14. Research from Woody Blue.)
In 1965, Koslov, then a physicist at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), suggested to Charles Weiss, head of security at the State Department, that a “a sober and systematic program of research” look into the “Moscow Signal”, which was caused by microwave radiation being beamed into the Moscow American Embassy. This program eventually evolved into Project Pandora, America’s first research program into the possible offensive, anti-personnel use of non-ionizing microwave radiation.
(Steneck, Nicholas H., The Microwave Debate, The MIT Press, 1984, pg 94-5)
A “Death Ray” weapon was developed by McFarlane Corporation, described as a modulated electron gun X-ray nuclear booster, could be adapted to communications, remote control and guidance systems, EM radiation telemetry and death ray. McFarlane claimed NASA stole the patent in 1965. Reported hearings before the House Subcommittee on Department of Defense Appropriations, chaired by Rep. George Mahon (Dem. – Texas). (From “Hearing Voices” by Alex Constantine, Hustler, Jan. 1994, pp 102-104, 113, 120, 134. Research by Harlan Girard.)
Project CIA and Department of Defense begin Project MKSEARCH, a program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior through the use of mind-altering drugs.
Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia are subjected to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical component of Agent Orange used in Viet Nam. The men are later studied for development of cancer, which indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all along.
CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test the toxicological effects of certain drugs on humans and animals.
U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant niger throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million civilians are exposed when army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with the bacteria onto ventilation grates.
Cleve Backster is a polygraph specialist who helped develop interrogation techniques for the CIA. As of 1986, he ran a polygraph instruction school and the Backster Research Foundaion in San Diego.
In February, 1966, Backster recorded what he believes to be emotional reactions in plants with a polygraph machine. Called the Backster Effect, the validity of this phenomena is still debated.
CIA and Department of Defense implement Project MKNAOMI, successor to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and test biological and chemical weapons.
Eldon Byrd Published a paper on the telemetry of brain waves in the “Proceedings” of the International Telemetering Conference, 1972. Byrd: Physical Scientist at the Naval Surface Weapons Center, White Oaks Laboratory, Silver Springs, Maryland (1968- unknown, at least 1981) Byrd describes his work with Naval Surface Weapons as “predicting what war will be like in the future.”
Dr. Gordon J. F. MacDonald, science advisor to President Lyndon Johnson, wrote, “Perturbation of the environment can produce changes in behavioural patterns.” He was referring to low frequency EM waves in the ionosphere affecting human brain wave patterns. (From his book, Unless Peace Comes, a Scientific Forecast of New Weapons, cited in “New World Order ELF Psychotronic Tyranny”, a paper by C. B. Baker.)
SPS: Solar Power Satellite Project
In 1968 the US military proposed Solar Powered Satellites in geostationary orbit some 40,000 km above the earth, which would intercept solar radiation using solar cells on satellites and transmit it via a microwave beam to receiving antennas, called rectennas, on earth. The US Congress mandated the Department of Energy and NASA to prepare an Environmental Impact Assessment on this project, to be completed by June 1980, and costing $25 Million. This project was designed to construct 60 Solar Powered Satellites over a thirty year period at a cost between $500 and $800 thousand million (in 1968 dollars), providing 100 percent of the US energy needs in the year 2025 at a cost of $3000 per kW. At that time, the project cost was two to three times larger than the whole Department of Energy budget, and the projected cost of the electricity was well above the cost of most conventional energy sources. The rectenna sites on earth were expected to take up to 145 square kilometers of land, and would preclude habitation by any humans, animals or even vegetation. Each Satellite was to be the size of Manhattan Island. [Sounds curiously like the HAARP array, yes?]
CIA experiments with the possibility of poisoning drinking water by injecting chemicals into the water supply of the FDA in Washington, D.C.
Charles Tart studied electrical engineering at MIT and received a PhD in psychology from the University of North Carolina. Taught humanistic and experimental psychology at the University of California, Davis. Has served as Instructor in Psychiatry at the University of Virginia Medical School, and as Lecturer in Psychology at Stanford University. His work has dealt with parapsychology, sleep and dreaming, hypnoisis, and psychoactive drugs. [Tart, Charles, ed., Altered States of Consciousness, Anchor Books, 1969, inside cover]
Dr. Robert MacMahan of the Department of Defense requests from congress $10 million to develop, within 5 to 10 years, a synthetic biological agent to which no natural immunity exists.
Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Jimmy Carter’s National Security Director, said in his book, Between Two Ages, weather control was a new weapon that would be the key element of strategy. “Technology will make available to leaders of major nations a variety of techniques for conducting secret warfare…” He also wrote “Accurately timed, artificially excited electronic strokes could lead to a pattern of oscillations that produce relatively high power levels over certain regions of the Earth … one could develop a system that would seriously impair the brain performance of a very large population in selected regions over an extended period.” [Cited in Baker’s “ELF Psychotronic Tyranny” paper.]
Funding for the synthetic biological agent is obtained under H.R. 15090. The project, under the supervision of the CIA, is carried out by the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, the army’s top secret biological weapons facility. Speculation is raised that molecular biology techniques are used to produce AIDS-like retroviruses.
United States intensifies its development of “ethnic weapons” (Military Review, Nov., 1970), designed to selectively target and eliminate specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due to genetic differences and variations in DNA.
Hal Puthoff joined SRI in 1971 as a specialist in laser physics.
circa 1972 Hubbard was hired by Willis Harman, then director of the Educational Policy Research Center at SRI to be a special investigative agent, earning $100 a day. Officially he was a security guard, although his actual duties included spying on the drug culture, which Hubbard, a political conservative, disdained. He stayed at SRI until the late 1970’s. (Lee and Schlain, pg 198-9)
According to Jack Sarfatti, a “very, very sophisticated and successful covert psychological warfare operation run by the late Brendan Regan of the Institute of Noetic Sciences and the late Harold Chipman who was the CIA station chief responsible for all mind-control research in the Bay Area in the 70’s.”
Bruce Maccabee: Dr. Maccabee has been a Research Physicist at the Naval Surface Weapons Center in Silver Spring, Maryland since 1972. His work has centered on high power lasers, underwater sound, and the Ballistic Missile Defense. He holds a Ph.D. in Physics from the American University in Washington, D.C. Dr. Maccabee was a member of the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena.
In early 1972, psychic Ingo Swann heard of Hal Puthoff’s research proposal through Cleve Backster.
According to Swann, Backster maintained his intelligence connections, and Backster reported that the CIA was interested in his experiments.
Some of Backster’s experiments are documented in “PRIMARY PERCEPTION: Cleve Backster’s astounding mind/plant communication discovery!”, Australian Lateral Thinking Newsletter,1996
Puthoff Head of the SRI remote viewing program, 1972-85. After he left, Puthoff was replaced with Ed May. Former Naval Intelligence Officer. (Puthoff, Harold, “CIA-Initiated Remote Viewing Program at Stanford Research Institute”, Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring 1996)
The Taser, first electrical shock device developed for use by law enforcement, delivers barbed, dart shaped electrodes to a subject’s body, and 50,000 volt pulses at two millionths of an amp ove 12-14 seconds time. (From “Report onthe Attorney General’s Conference on Less Than Lethal Weapons”, by Sherry Sweetman, 1987, p 4, which cites “Non-Lethal Weapons for Law Enforcement: Research Needs and Priorities. A Report to the National Science Foundation by the Security Planning Corporation, 1972. Research by Harlan Girard.)
“A U.S. Department of Defense document said that the Army has tested a microwave weapon. It was an extremely powerful ‘electronic flamethrower’. ” (From “Electromagnetic Pollution”)
“A study published by the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center, titled ‘Analysis of Microwaves for Barrier Warfare’ examines the plausibility of using radio frequency energy in barrier counter-barrier warfare … The report concludes that (a) it is possible to field a truck-portable microwave barrier system that will completely immobilize personnel in the open with present day technology, (b) there is a strong potential for a microwave system that would be capable of delaying or immobilizing personnel in vehicles, (c) with present technology, no method could be identified for a microwave system to destroy the type of armoured material common to tanks.” (From “Electromagnetic Pollution” by Kim Besly, p 15, quoting The Zapping of America by Paul Brodeur.) The report further documents the ability to create third-degree burns on human skin using 3 Gigahertz at 20 watts/square centimeter in two seconds.
Dr. Gordon J. F. MacDonald testified before the House Subcommittee on Oceans and International Environment, concerning low frequency research: “The basic notion there was to create between the electrically charged ionosphere in the higher part of the atmosphere and conducting layers of the surface of the Earth this neutral cavity, to create waves, electrical waves that would be tuned to the brainwaves … about ten cycles per second … you can produce changes in behavioural patterns or in responses.” [From Baker’s “ELF Psychotronic Tyranny” paper.]
Sharp and Grove transmit audible words via microwaves [EW: That is, voice to SKULL] (See “Synthetic Telepathy” in Resonance ]
Richard Kennett is a pseudonym used by author Jim Schnabel in Remote Viewers (Dell, 1997) to describe a CIA scientist who worked with the remote viewing project. In the photo insert is a picture of Kennett, Pat Price, and Harold Puthoff after a remote viewing experiment involving a glider. Elsewhere (example: Puthoff, Harold, “CIA-Initiated Remote Viewing Program at Stanford Research Institute”, Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring 1996), the man in the photo on the left is identified as Chistopher Green. As there can’t be too many scientists at the CIA with an interest in the paranormal with this name, I feel safe in guessing that the two are the same, although I haven’t absolutely confirmed it. At any rate, here is the information on “Richard Kennett”, all from Remote Viewers.
In spring, 1973, he was an analyst with the CIA’s Office of Scientific Intelligence with a Ph.D. in neurophysiology. “Within a decade, Kennett would be the assistant national intelligence officer for chemical and biological warfare issues”. His work concentrated on evaluating the health of foreign officials, but he also explored the fringes of medicine and psychology. It was under these circumstances that he challenged Hal Puthoff’s research at SRI, although he was not officially controlling the contract. (pg 104-6)
The initial challenge was to view a secret microwave receiving station. [This controversial experiment is dealt with at length here. According to Schnabel’s information, this would make Kennett the “east coast challenger” from Mind Reach]. Kennett, as well as the team at SRI, were reportedly investigated by the Defense Investigative Service after the viewing.
Kennett was also involved with the experiments with Uri Geller. (pg 139) Kennett was also called in to look at the scientists at Lawrence Livermore national laboratory who began to see “visions” after experimenting with Geller. (pg 166-9)
Kennett left the CIA around 1985. (pg 317)
Monroe Institute. Founded and directed by Robert Monroe from 1974 until his death in1995.
Had classified contracts with the U.S. Army Intelligence & Security Command (INSCOM) on orders by Gen. Albert Stubblebine. The Institute studied their hemi-synch techniques to see if they could enhance soldiers’ performance and concentration. (Emerson, Steven, Secret Warriors, G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1988, pg 103-4)
The primary area of research at the Monroe Institute involves using a binaural beat to cause different psychological effects. A binaural beat is created by using stereo headphones with each speaker emitting a slightly different frequency. The result is a tone at the frequency between the two, which allegedly causes the brain to “entrain” on the frequency, i.e. the brain waves regulate themselves to the same frequency.
The National Research council evaluated the Institute’s claims that the method could be used to improve learning. [National Research Council, Enhancing Human Performance, National Academy of Sciences, 1988, pg 111-4]
“..located near Charlottesville, Virginia. Bob Monroe, author of many books on Out of Body experiences, has long and close ties with the C.I.A. James Monroe, Bob’s father, if I’m not mistaken, was involved with the Human Ecology Society, a C.I.A. front organization of the late 50’s and 60’s. The Monroe Institute has done research on accelerated learning and foreign language learning through the use of altered states of consciousness for the C.I.A. and other government organizations. Government interest in the more radical research going on at the institute remains only tantalizing speculation. Official classified document storage boxes have been seen at their mail-order outlet located in Lovingston, VA.”
(Porter, Tom, Government Research into ESP & Mind Control, March, 1996)
The Monroe Institute trained the government viewers from Ft. Meade in out of body experiences. Courtney Brown also went through this training, which involves using the Institute’s Hemisync tapes. These tapes, which work by using a binural beat to entrain brain waves, caused Brown to feel that he left his body and communicated with aliens. [Brown, Courtney, Cosmic Voyage, Dutton, 1996]
In 1974, Jack Sarfatti is Director of a physics program at the Esalen Institute. He’s been funded by Werner Erhard and Jean Lanier, a friend of Laurance Rockefeller. (Sarfatti, Jack, “The Parsifal Effect”, The Destiny Matrix) Sarfatti met with Puharich, Uri Geller, and Ira Einhorn at Puharich’s Ossining ranch. Einhorn acted as a literary agent for Sarfatti, and brought him to Esalen
Physics /Consciousness research group.This is where it all started back in 1975. PCRG was co-founded by Jack Sarfattiand Michael Murphy at the Esalen Institutein Big Sur, California in 1974. Financed by Werner Erhard, Jean Lanier and the late George Koopman, the PCRG nurtured the creation of books like Space-Time and Beyond, The Tao of Physics, The Dancing Wu Li Masters, Cosmic Trigger, and The Roots of Consciousness. The group included the physicists and authors, Fred Alan Wolf, Nick Herbert and Fritjof Capra, along with Saul Paul Sirag, Henry Dakin, Robert Anton Wilson, Uri Geller, Barbara Honneger, the late Brendan O Regan, George Leonard, Gary Zukav, Ira Einhorn, and artist Lynn Hershmann.
Nobel Laureate, Brian Josephson, along with physicists David Finkelstein, Russell Targ, Karl Pribram, Henry Stapp, Phillipe Eberhard, and Ralph Abraham, all came for shorter visits. The group is now reborn on the World Wide Web twenty years later with both new and old faces. According to George Koopman, the PCRG was the inspiration for the film Ghost.
Saturn V Rocket
Due to a malfunction, the Saturn V Rocket burned unusually high in the atmosphere, above 300 km. This burn produced “a large ionospheric hole” (Mendillo, M. Et al., Science p. 187, 343, 1975). The disturbance reduced the total electron content more than 60% over an area 1,000 km in radius, and lasted for several hours. It prevented all telecommunications over a large area of the Atlantic Ocean. The phenomenon was apparently caused by a reaction between the exhaust gases and ionospheric oxygen ions. The reaction emitted a 6300 A airglow. Between 1975 and 1981 NASA and the US Military began to design ways to test this new phenomena through deliberate experimentation with the ionosphere
In 1975 Bruce Maccabee joined MUFON and was appointed State Director for Maryland and a Consultant in Photo Analysis and Laser Physics.
In the 1970’s, Mike Murphy became interested in Russian parapsychology, and visited the country to meet experimenters in this field. This led to a close connection between Esalen and some Russian officials, who set up an exchange program. Lasting into the 1980’s, this exchange was dubbed “hot-tub diplomacy”. John Mack was reportedly involved in this exchange
In the late 1970’s, Esalen became involved with an Englishwoman named Jenny O’Connor, who claimed to be in psychic contact with the Nine (probably the same Nine that Andriah Puharich claimed to be in contact with). Dick Price and other members of the Esalen staff became increasingly dependent on the Nine, to the point of listing them as program leaders and members of the Esalen Gestalt Staff in brochures. (Anderson, pg 302)
The virus section of Fort Detrick’s Center for Biological Warfare Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research Facilities and placed under the supervision of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) . It is here that a special virus cancer program is initiated by the U.S. Navy, purportedly to develop cancer-causing viruses. It is also here that retrovirologists isolate a virus to which no immunity exists. It is later named HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus).
1975 – 1977
“Unpublished analyses of microwave bioeffects literature were disseminated to the U.S. Congress and to other officials arguing the case for remote control of human behavior by radar.” (From the Journal of Microwave Power, 12(4), 1977, p 320. Research by Harlan Girard.)
Around late 1976 to 1977, Dale Graff, then a physicist with the Air Force’s Foreign Technology Division, gave a small contract to the SRI research team. Graff wanted to replicate some Soviet psi experiments done in submarines, as well as test the Soviet hypothesis that psi was transmitted via ELF (extremely low frequency) electromagnetic waves. These test were conducted in July, 1977, with the help of Stephan Schwartz
Former Navy officer and psychic researcher. Schwartz helped procure a submarine for a July 1977 experiment with SRI. These experiments included some on behalf of Dale Graffof the Air Force.
(Schnabel, Jim, Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America’s Psychic Spies, Dell, 1997, pg 207)
Research associate with the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory.
Around 1976, Koslov, as the scientific assistant to the secretary of the Navy, was being briefed on various contracts the Navy held, including one for SRI. The section describing the contract at SRI was headed “ELF AND MIND CONTROL” (ELF stands for extremely-low frequency). Reportedly, Koslov was upset by the label, and cancelled the contract with SRI. “I don’t believe it’s the function of the military to support parapsychology.” (Wilhelm, John, “Psychic Spying?”, Washington Post 8/7/77, B5)
According to another account, the heading was “Sensing of Remote EM sources (Physiological Correlates)”. According to this account, Koslov thought the project dealt with mind control, and looked into the contract in more detail. He found that it dealt with psychic research, which upset him as well, and ordered the contract to be cancelled. (Schnabel, Jim, Remote Viewers, Dell, 1997, pg 206)
Either Wilhelm paraphrased and misinterpreted the section heading on the briefing, or the story was sanitized somewhere along the line before reaching Schnabel’s book. In either case, the Navy continued to fund psychic research (Wilhelm, 1977), and has been one of the biggest funders of research related to electronic mind control
Christopher Bird Presented a paper on dowsing and the psychic ability of plants at the “Mind Over Matter” conference at Penn State University, late January, 1977, organized by Ira Einhorn. Other attendees included Andrija Puharichand Thomas Bearden. (Levy, pg 189)
Soon afterwards, Einhorn and the psychic mafia focused their attention on ELF mind control. (Levy, pg 190). He suggests that his murder charge could have been a set-up by the CIA or KGB for his interest in activities by America and Russia in the areas of psychic warfare, Tesla technology, and mind control. (Levy, pg 242) Puharich says that Einhorn’s work wasn’t important enough to elicit such a reaction. (Levy, pg 308) The likelihood is that Einhorn, like many of the individuals involved in COINTELPRO, was merely a “useful idiot,” who was as manipulated as those he sought to manipulate.
Einhorn led seminars at the Esalen Institute and was involved with the Physics/Consciousness Research Group. He reportedly worked with Congressman Charlie Rose, a large supporter of psychic studies, on classified projects.
Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research confirm that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with biological agents between 1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Key West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.
Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.
Hungarians presented a state-of-the-art paper on infrasonic weapons to the United Nations, “Working Paper on Infrasound Weapons”, United Nations CD/575, 14 Aug 1978. (From “The Road From Armageddon” by Peter Lewis.)
SPS Military Implications
Early review of the Solar Powered Satellite Project began in around 1978, and I (Rosalie Bertell) was on the review panel. Although this was proposed as an energy program, it had significant military implications. One of the most significant, first pointed out by Michael J. Ozeroff, was the possibility of developing a satellite-borne beam weapon for anti-ballistic missile (ABM) use. The satellites were to be in geosynchronous orbits, each providing an excellent vantage point from which an entire hemisphere can be surveyed continuously. It was speculated that a high-energy laser beam could function as a thermal weapon to disable or destroy enemy missiles. There was some discussion of electron weapon beams, through the use of a laser beam to preheat a path for the following electron beam.
The SPS was also described as a psychological and anti- personnel weapon, which could be directed toward an enemy. If the main microwave beam was redirected away from its rectenna, toward enemy personnel, it could use an infrared radiation wave-length (invisible) as an anti-personnel weapon. It might also be possible to transmit high enough energy to ignite combustible materials. Laser beam power relays could be made from the SPS satellite to other satellites or platforms, for example aircraft, for military purposes. One application might be a laser powered turbofan engine which would receive the laser beam directly in its combustion chamber, producing the required high temperature gas for its cruising operation. This would allow unlimited on-station cruise time. As a psychological weapon, the SPS was capable of causing general panic.
The SPS would be able to transmit power to remote military operations anywhere needed on earth. The manned platform of the SPS would provide surveillance and early warning capability, and ELF linkage to submarines. It would also provide the capability of jamming enemy communications. The potential for jamming and creating communications is significant. The SPS was also capable of causing physical changes in the ionosphere.
President Carter approved the SPS Project and gave it a go- ahead, in spite of the reservation which many reviewers, myself included, expressed. Fortunately, it was so expensive, exceeding the entire Department of Energy budget, that funding was denied by the Congress. I approached the United Nations Committee on Disarmament on this project, but was told that as long as the program was called Solar Energy by the United States, it could not be considered a weapons project. The same project resurfaced in the US under President Reagan. He moved it to the much larger budget of the Department of Defense and called it Star Wars. Since this is more recent history, I will not discuss the debate which raged over this phase of the plan.
By 1978, it was apparent to the US Military that communications in a nuclear hostile environment would not be possible using traditional methods of radio and television technology (Jane’s Military Communications 1978). By 1982, GTE Sylvania (Needham Heights, Massachusetts) had developed a command control electronic sub-system for the US Air Force’s Ground Launch Cruise Missiles (GLCM) that would enable military commanders to monitor and control the missile prior to launch both in hostile and non-hostile environments. The system contains six radio subsystems, created with visible light using a dark beam (not visible) and is resistant to the disruptions experienced by radio and television. Dark beams contribute to the formation of energetic plasma in the atmosphere. This plasma can become visible as smog or fog. Some has a different charge than the sun’s energy, and accumulates in places where the sun’s energy is absent, like the polar regions in the winter. When the polar spring occurs, the sun appears and repels this plasma, contributing to holes in the ozone layer. This military system is called: Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN). (See The SECOMII Communication System, by Wayne Olsen, SAND 78- 0391,Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, April 1978.) This innovative emergency radio system was apparently never implemented in Europe, and exists only in North America.
In February, 1979, Alfred Hubbard attended an LSD reuinion party, hosted by Dr. Oscar Janiger, along with Laura Huxley, Sidney Cohn, John Lilly, Willis Harman, and Timothy Leary, among others. (Lee and Schlain, 213)
Around 1979, SRI funded a project of Tart’s which screened university students and faculty for psychic ability. (Schnabel, Jim, Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America’s Psychic Spies, Dell, 1997, pg 225-6)
In an article entitled “The Fund for CIA Research, or Who’s Disinforming Who?”, the anonymous authors (the Associated Investigators Group) accuse Bruce Maccabee of working with the CIA, providing them with information, and letting the CIA affect his leadership in FUFOR. According to the article, Maccabee’s main contact with the CIA was through Dr. Christopher Green.
In a written response, Maccabee rebuts that most of his contacts with the CIA have been in the context of his work with the Navy, and are unrelated to his UFO research. He says that he did give CIA employees informal lectures at the request of Ron Pandolfi, but that the CIA has never attempted to influence his research. [A similar rebuttal was written by Aviary guy Dan Smith and Rosemary Ellen Guiley of Fate Magazine, and New Age Land Central, in later years, after similar accusations were made. ]
“I never contacted any companies. What I did was tell Jack Acuff, Director of NICAP at the time, that I would like to speak to experts in the field of radar. He, in turn, put me in contact with a scientist, Dr. Gordon MacDonald, at the MITRE corporation. I was invited to discuss the NZ sightings with him and several other scientists at MITRE in McLean, Va. and I did (and they generally agreed with my conclusions). Then, a week or so later, I learned that MacDonald had contacted a man at the CIA who contacted me and offered to provide technical consultation if I would provide a briefing to some CIA employees. At first I was leery of doing anything with the CIA, but I knew they had radar experts, so I stipulated that if they would give me some feedback I’d tell them what I know. So I briefed them and I received some helpful comments…” [When you dance with the Devil, the Devil doesn’t change – the Devil changes YOU!]
“After I discussed the NZ case one employee, Dr. Christopher “Kit” Green (KG), invited me to visit the CIA again a week or so later to have a general UFO discussion with him and a couple of other employees…”
“After that last meeting with KG in the spring of 1979 I didn’t see him again and had no contact with the agency until June, 1984 when I was contacted by Dr. Ronald Pandolfi regarding my Navy work. He had been tracking developments by the “other side” in that field of research and wanted to know what the US state of the art was.” (Bruce Maccabee’s response to the AIR report)
Formerly with the CIA, Dr. Green’s work involved UFO research. “Dr. Green attained a Ph.D. in Neurophysiology in 1969 and in1976 received his M.D., Doctor of Medicine, degree. Green was awarded the CIA’s National Intelligence Medal for his work on a ‘classified project’ from 1979 to 1983, precisely the years in which Maccabee was meeting with him at CIA headquarters. Green uses somewhat of a cover story to describe his CIA work, calling himself a ‘Scientific Advisor on the Advisory Board to the Directorate of Intelligence, CIA.'” (The Associated Investigators Group, “The Fund for CIA Research, or Who’s Disinforming Who?”)
Esalen also held seminars in quantum physics, and was the birthplace of the Physics/Consciousness Research Group. Some results of these seminars are documented in Zukav, Gary, The Dancing Wu Li Masters, Morrow Quill, 1979
By the 1980’s, Koslov was working with the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University, where he continued to study the effects of electromagnetic radiation on humans. He is currently the vice president of the Maryland Microscopical and Scientific Instrument Society.
Dale Graff had continued to task SRI on behalf of the Air Force for the next few years. In 1980, he won a fellowship for “exceptional analyst” within the intelligence community, and planned to spend two years off to conduct research in other laboratories: SRI, a psychokenesis lab at Princeton, a J.B. Rhine affiliated lab in Durham, NC, and a Department of Energy lab where microwave weapons were being studied. His fellowship was revoked by the office of the Air Force Chief of Staff, and with the encouragement of Jack Vorona, he retired from the Air Force and moved to the DIA, where he ran the Advanced Concepts Office
“Michelle Smith” and Lawrence Pazder published “Michelle Remembers” about Satanic Ritual Abuse memories. She came to therapist Pazder because she was in distress over horrible dreams and a miscarriage.
Orbit Maneuvering System
Part of the plan to build the SPS space platforms was the demand for reusable space shuttles, since they could not afford to keep discarding rockets. The NASA Spacelab 3 Mission of the Space Shuttle made, in 1981, “a series of passes over a network of five ground based observatories” in order to study what happened to the ionosphere when the Shuttle injected gases into it from the Orbit Maneuvering System (OMS). They discovered that they could “induce ionospheric holes” and began to experiment with holes made in the daytime, or at night over Millstone, Connecticut, and Arecibo, Puerto Rico. They experimented with the effects of “artificially induced ionospheric depletions on very low frequency wave lengths, on equatorial plasma instabilities, and on low frequency radio astronomical observations over Roberval, Quebec, Kwajelein, in the Marshall Islands and Hobart, Tasmania” (Advanced Space Research, Vo1.8, No. 1, 1988).
Eldon Byrd who worked for Naval Surface Weapons, Office of Non-Lethal Weapons, was commissioned in 1981 to develop electromagnetic devices for purposes including ‘riot control’, clandestine operations and hostage removal.”
“Byrd also wrote of experiments where behavior of animals was controlled by exposure to weak electromagnetic fields. ‘At a certain frequency and power intensity, they could make the animal purr, lay down and roll over.'” (Keeler, Anna, “Remote Mind Control Technology”)
“Between 1981 and September 1982, the Navy commissioned me to investigate the potential of developing electromagnetic devices that could be used as non-lethal weapons by the Marine Corp for the purpose of ‘riot control’, hostage removal, clandestine operations, and so on.” Eldon Byrd, Naval Surface Weapons Center, Silver Spring MD. (From “Electromagnetic Pollution” by Kim Besly, p 12.)
John Alexander Supported the views of Thomas Bearden. Delivered a paper to the 1981 national convention of the US Psychotronic Association
General Albert Stubblebine. Former head of the U.S. Army Intelligence & Security Command (INSCOM) 1981-84 . Masters degree in chemical engineering from Columbia. Signed classified contracts with the Monroe Institute. (Emerson, Steven, Secret Warriors, G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1988, pg 103-4).
Stubblebine often met with Noriega while he was a US intelligence asset. (Emerson, 1988, pg 110-1) Stubblebine was the former boss of Col. John Alexander, and the two have held numerous “spoon-bending” parties. Friends with Lyn Buchanan [according to a representative from PSI TECH, the two are not friends]. Stubblebine is married to ufologist Rima Laibow. (Porter, Tom, Government Research into ESP & Mind Control, March, 1996)
Soon after becoming head of INSCOM, Stubblebine began a program called the “High Performance Task Force”, a series of methods to improve his officer’s performance. These ranged from the neuro-linquistic programming of Tony Robbins to the hemisynch tapes of the Monroe Institute, where Stubblebine often sent his officers. (Schnabel, Jim, Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America’s Psychic Spies, Dell, 1997, pg 276)
The “spoon-bending parties” were initiated by a west coast defence industry consultant, Jack Houck. (Schnabel, 1997, pg 278)
Following an incident involving an officer having a psychotic episode at the Monroe Institute, Stubblebine resigned in 1984. He was replaced by Major General Harry Soyster. (Schnabel, 1997, pg 316) Formerly Vice President for ‘Intelligence Systems’ of BDM of McClean, Virginia.” As of 1992, Chairman of PSI-TECH.
“Laibow, Stubblebine and ufologist Victoria Lacas (with [C.B. Scott] Jones in the shadows) toured Europe and the Soviet Union, where they have established a prodigious UFO/Psi network.”
(Durant, Robert J., “Will the Real Scott Jones Please Stand Up?”)
Stubblebine gave a lecture at the International Symposium on UFO Research, sponsored by the International Association for New Science, in Denver, Colorado (May 22-25, 1992). This gives a good example of Stubblebine’s coherence (or lack thereof) and paranoia (he often threatened to destroy the tape). Stubblebine claimed that none of the members of the remote viewing program had prior psychic abilities or interests (all other sources state that they did).
In the summer of 1981, Pat Delgado brought to the attention of the national press the existence of mysterious circular depressions in the fields at Cheesefoot Head, Hampshire.
Budd Hopkins published Missing Time, with an afterword by therapist Aphrodite Clamar. Hopkins book was about the in depth investigation of 19 cases of UFO abduction which he had undertaken in the previous five years.
First cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual men in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, triggering speculation that AIDS may have been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine
In May 1982, Elisabeth and Russell Targ held a workshop on psychic phenomena for twenty-five professionals. This was part of a program with Stanislav Grof, who was studying non-chemical alternatives for altered states of consciousness. The Targs goal was to show that psychic experiences did not require an altered state. (Targ, Russell and Harary, Keith, Mind Race, Villard Books, 1984, pg 99)
Grof served briefly as the branch chief of the operational unit of Star Gate from around 1982 or 83 until he resigned in summer of 1993
Electromagnetic weapons for law enforcement use in Great Britain: A 10-30 Hz strobe light which can produce seizures, giddiness, nausea, and fainting was developed by Charles Bovill of the now defunct British firm, Allen International. Addition of sound pulses in the 4.0 – 7.5 Hz range increases effectiveness, as utilized in the Valkyrie, a “frequency” weapon advertised in British Defense Equipment Catalogue until 1983. The squawk box or sound curdler uses two loudspeakers of 350 watt output to emit two slightly different frequencies which combine in the ear to produce a shrill shrieking noise. The U.S. National Science Foundation report says there is “severe risk of permanent impairment of hearing.” (From “Electropollution” by Kim Besley, citing the Manchester City Council Police Monitoring Unit document.)
Air Force review of biotechnology:
“Currently available data allow the projection that specially generated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) fields may pose powerful and revolutionary antipersonnel military threats. Electroshock therapy indicates the ability of induced electric current to completely interrupt mental functioning for short periods of time, to obtain cognition for longer periods and to restructure emotional response over prolonged intervals.
“… impressed electromagnetic fields can be disruptive to purposeful behavior and may be capable of directing and/or interrogating such behavior. Further, the passage of approximately 100 milliamperes through the myocardium can lead to cardiac standstill and death, again pointing to a speed-of-light weapons effect.
“A rapidly scanning RFR system could provide an effective stun or kill capability over a large area.” (From Final Report on Biotechnology Research Requirements for Aeronautical Systems Through the Year 2000. AFOSR-TR-82-0643, vol 1, and vol 2, 30 July 1982.)
PHOENIX II, U.S.A.F, NSA:
Location: Montauk, Long Island
Electronic multi-directional targeting of select population groups
Targeting: Medium range
Frequencies: Radar, microwaves. EHF UHF modulated
Power: Gigawatt through Terawatt
urpose: Loading of Earth Grids, planetary sonombulescence to stave off geological activity, specific-point earthquake creation, population programming for sensitized individuals
Pseudonym: “Rainbow”, ZAP
Nikolai Khokhlov, a Soviet KGB agent who defected to the West in 1976, interviews recently arrived scientists and reports: “The Soviet mind- control program is run by the KGB with unlimited funds.” (From The Spectator, Feb 5, 1983, reported in “New World Order Psychotronic Tyranny” by C. B. Baker.)
Center Lane was the codename for the operational unit of the remote-viewing program, redesignated from Grill Flame in late 1983.
Control of the unit shifted from INSCOM’s operation group to the more direct control of Albert Stubblebine. The unit was known as INSCOM Center Lane Project (ICLP). (Schnabel, Jim, Remote Viewers: The Secret History of America’s Psychic Spies, Dell, 1997, pg 280)
In late 1983, four more individuals were recruited to Center Lane: Captain Ed Dames, Captain Bill Ray (counterintelligence specialist), Captain Paul Smith, and Charlene Cavanaugh (civilian analyst with INSCOM). These four began a training program, which began at The Monroe Institute and concluded with personal training with Ingo Swann. (Schnabel, 1997, pg 292-3)
After Gen. Stubblebine’s retirement in 1984, Center Lane was completely without support in the Army. Jack Vorona arranged for the unit to be transferred directly to the DIA’s Scientific and Technical Intelligence Directorate when Army funding ran out in late 1985, at which time it was redesignated Sun Streak. Until that time, the unit was given no official taskings. (Schnabel, 1997, pg 319)
CENTER LANE started when Ingo Swann at SRI came across a breakthrough in his techniques in 1983. He developed a training program and trained six military officers, including Ed Dames, over a period of six months. After finishing the training in late 1983, the viewers returned and started applying their knowledge. The unit was renamed CENTER LANE, with Dames as the operations and training officer.
“Dames took a ‘let’s see what this baby can do’ approach, replacing theunit’s former intelligence collection methodology with the breakthrough technique.” (Dames, Ed “Ed Dames Sets the Record Straight”) [Keep in mind that Dames is a major disinfo artist.]
“USSR: New Beam Energy Possible?”, possibly associated with early Soviet weather engineering efforts over the U.S. (From “Tesla’s Electromagnetics and Its Soviet Weaponization” by T. E. Bearden.)
According to former Reagan aide Barbara Honneger, “the fundamental reason for the increased interest [in psi research] is initial results coming out of laboratories in the United States and Canada that certain amplitude and frequency combinations of external electromagnetic radiation in the brain-wave frequency range are capable of bypassing the external sensory mechanism of organisms, including humans, and directly stimulating higher-level neuronal structures in the brain. This electronic stimulation is known to produce mental changes at a distance, including hallucinations in various sensory modalities, particularly auditory.” (McRae, Ronald, Mind Wars, St. Martin’s Press, 1984, pg 136)
[Hambone writes in regard to the above]
The overlap between these two fields can be described as:
Some ELF mind-control studies have been discussed under the heading of psychotronics. Many, myself included, don’t agree with this label, as there is no psychic component in the study of the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the central nervous system.
As in most scientific fields, research that is tangential for one project may be central to another. Navy studies in ELF communications included a portion on possible health effects. When these findings were revealed, the possibilty of using ELF as a weapon arose, and studies were continued in that direction. However, we can’t say that all of the Navy’s research into ELF radio was a front for mind-control, as they have a definite interest in communication with their submarines.
The same may be true for remote-viewing studies. Studies at SRI and elsewhere measured and analyzed subject’s brain waves, and also studied the effects of ELF waves as a possible carrier for telepathic information.
Tech Enhanced Psi:
Some studies, especially those involving dolphins, tried to use technology to enhance psychic phenomena. Most of this is pure bunk, including most of the inventions I’ve seen created by the Russians and the US Psychotronic Association. Some of it resembles telepathy simulated by technology, such as the attempt to carry signals from dolphins to humans via the Neurophone. This would seem to to fit better under misidentification.
Remote viewing, like UFOs, has been postulated by some researchers as being used as a cover story for covert mind-control experiments. This plan would convince the victims that the “voices” or sensory data they were unnaturally receiving was due to channeling, telepathy, or remote-viewing. It would also have the “high-weirdness” factor, which would preclude a serious treatment of the subject by the mainstream media. However, I’m hesitant to lump the entire spectrum of government interest in psi in this category.
Both psychic ability and things like non-lethal weapons are considered to be on the “cutting edge” of military theory. This is an alternative explanation as to why individuals like John Alexander and David Morehouseare interested in both fields.
The degree to which these cross-overs apply to specific cases are dealt with individually, and to this subject as a whole in the conclusions.
Founded by Ed May, the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory was formed at SRI in 1985 and moved with May to SAIC. May and the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory are currently at a “small start-up research place called the Laboratories for Fundamental Research”. (Email from Ed May, 8/7/96)
Joe McMoneagle is listed as a research associate. Other staff members include S. James. P. Spottiswoode, Earling DeGraff, Nevin D. Lantz, Philip Wasserman, Laura V. Faith, Ellen Messer, and Stephan A. Schwartz.
Click here to visit their home page, which May claims has the only declassified information on the remote-viewing program on the net.
“I (Dean Radin) took a leave of absence from Bell Labs in 1985, and spent that entire year at SRI International, working with Hal Puthoff and Ed May. Since then I spent about half my time in academia (Princeton, Edinburgh, UNLV) and half in industry (Contel Technology Center, GTE Labs). My academic research was exclusively on psi phenomena, and my industrial research included about 20% on psi.”
“I’m not in favor of developing or using psi for any military purposes, but unfortunately there are those in the world who would use psi as a weapon if they could. Thus, I reluctantly suppose that R& D on psi for intelligence and possibly military purposes can be justified for defensive reasons. It would be naive to think that someone, somewhere is not working on this right now.” (Interview with the RetroPsychoKinesis Project)
Since the early 1970s, Puthoff had been a part-time, paid consultant to Bill Church regarding alternative fuel sources. At Puthoff’s urging, Church developed a company, Jupiter Technologies, to research zero-point energy. In the summer of 1985, after giving only two weeks notice, Puthoff left SRI to work for Church full time. (Schnabel, Jim, 1997, pg 323)
Women in the peace camps at Greenham Common began showing various medical symptoms believed to be caused by EM surveillance weapons beamed at them. (See “Zapping: The New Weapon of the Patriarchy”, Resonance#13, pp 22-24. Research by Woody Blue.)
Innovative Shuttle Experiments
An innovative use of the Space Shuttle to perform space physics experiments in earth orbit was launched, using the OMS injections of gases to “cause a sudden depletion in the local plasma concentration, the creation of a so called ionospheric hole.” This artificially induced plasma depletion can then be used to investigate other space phenomena, such as the growth of the plasma instabilities or the modification of radio propagation paths. The 47 second OMS burn of July 29, 1985, produced the largest and most long-lived ionospheric hole to date, dumping some 830 kg of exhaust into the ionosphere at sunset. A 6 second, 68 km OMS release above Connecticut in August 1985, produced an airglow which covered over 400,000 square km.
During the 1980’s, rocket launches globally numbered about 500 to 600 a year, peaking at 1500 in 1989. There were many more during the Gulf War. The Shuttle is the largest of the solid fuel rockets, with twin 45 meter boosters. All solid fuel rockets release large amounts of hydrochloric acid in their exhaust, each Shuttle flight injecting about 75 tons of ozone destroying chlorine into the stratosphere. Those launched since 1992 inject even more ozone-destroying chlorine, about 187 tons, into the stratosphere (which contains the ozone layer).
Whitley Strieber publishes Communion. Unknown Country
According to the journal Science (227:173-177), HTLV and VISNA, a fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a close taxonomic and evolutionary relationship.
Attorney General’s Conference on Less Than Lethal Weapons. Reviews current weapons available, most date back to 1972: the Taser, the Nova XR-5000 Stun Gun (can interrupt a pacemaker); the Talon, a glove with an electrical pulse generator; the Source, a flashlight with electrodes at the base. These devices are useful only at close range, except for the Taser, and are generally restricted to correctional institutions. Photic driving strobe lights tested by one conference delegate on 100 subjects, produced discomfort. Closed eyelids do not block the effect. Evidence that ELF produces nausea and disorientation. Suggestion to develop fast acting electrosleep inducing EM weapon. Discusses problem of testing weapons on animals and human “volunteers”. (From “Report on the Attorney General’s Conference on Less Than Lethal Weapons”, by Sherry Sweetman, March 1987, prepared for the National Institute of Justice. Research by Harlan Girard.)
“The Electromagnetic Spectrum in Low-Intensity Conflict” by Captain Paul Tyler, MC, USN quotes the above passage and further elaborates on the theme. (Published in Low Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology, Lt. Col. David J. Dean, USAF, ed., Air University Press, Maxwell AFB, AL. Research by Harlan Girard.)
On 2/10/86, Cleve Backster’s lab was visited by National Research Council’s Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance. The NRC was evaluating enhancement and parapsychological studies conducted for the Army, so it is likely that Backster’s research was involved with the government. (National Research Council, Enhancing Human Performance, National Academy of Sciences, 1988, pg 193-8)
In April 1986, just before the Chernobyl disaster, the US had a failed hydrogen test at the Nevada Test Site called Mighty Oaks. This test, conducted far underground, consisted of a hydrogen bomb explosion in one chamber, with a leaded steel door to the chamber, two meters thick, closing within milliseconds of the blast. The door was to allow only the first radioactive beam to escape into the “control room” in which expensive instrumentation was located. The radiation was to be captured as a weapon beam. The door failed to close as quickly as planned, causing the radioactive gases and debris to fill the control room, destroying millions of dollars worth of equipment. The experiment was part of a program to develop X-ray and particle beam weapons. The radioactive releases from Mighty Oaks were vented, under a “licensed venting” and were likely responsible for many of the North American nuclear fallout reports in May 1986, which were attributed to the Chernobyl disaster.
According to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (83:4007-4011), HIV and VISNA are highly similar and share all structural elements, except for a small segment which is nearly identical to HTLV. This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA may have been linked to produce a new retrovirus to which no natural immunity exists.
A report to Congress reveals that the U.S. Government’s current generation of biological agents includes: modified viruses, naturally occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through genetic engineering to change immunological character and prevent treatment by all existing vaccines.
In 1987, Pandolfi invited UFOlogist Bruce Maccabee “to give a general lecture to [CIA] employees on UFOs and MJ-12″. (Maccabee’s response to AIR)
Department of Defense admits that, despite a treaty banning research and development of biological agents, it continues to operate research facilities at 127 facilities and universities around the nation.
After retiring from the Army in 1988, John Alexander joined the Los Alamos National Laboratories and began working with Janet Morris, the Research Director of the U.S. Global Strategy Council (USGSC), chaired by Dr Ray Cline, (deceased) former Deputy Director of the CIA.”
The Pentagon is ordered by courts to cease EMP tests at several locations due to a lawsuit filed by an environmental group. (From The Washington Post, May 15, 1988, see “US and Soviets Develop Death Ray”, Resonance 11, p 10. Research by Remy Chevalier.)
Senator Claiborne Pell from Rhode Island. Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Club of Rome. Decorated by the Knights of Malta. Along with Charlie Rose, Pell is one of Washington’s biggest supporters of psychic research. In1988 he introduced a bill to get government funding for the new age group the National Committee on Human Resources (Al Gore was a co-sponsor). On the advisory board of the International Association of Near-Death Studies, and on the board of the Institute of Noetic Sciences and the Human Potential Foundation
For seven years, Claiborne Pell employed C.B. Scott Jones as an aide. (Gardner, Martin, “Clairborne Pell: The Senator From Outer Space”, Skeptical Inquirer, March/April 1996) Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. Pell was a close friend of BCCI figure Clark Clifford. (Truell, Peter and Gurwin, Larry, False Profits, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992, pg 240)
MUFON appointed C.B. Scott Jones as a Special Consultant in International Relations
TRIDENT, ONR, NSA:
Electronic directed targeting of individuals or populations
Targeting: Large population groups assembled
Display: Black helicopters flying in triad formation of three
Power: 100,000 watts
urpose: Large group management and behavior control, riot control Allied Agencies: FEMA
Pseudonym: “Black Triad” A.E.M.C
Human Potential Foundation Founder and president: C.B. Scott Jones Board members include Clark Sandground and Claiborne Pell. Received original funding from Laurance Rockefeller. Passes funds from Rockefeller to UFO abduction researcher John Mack. Worked with Dr. Igor Smirnov.
Michael Persinger feels that he is able to replicate alien abduction and other supernatural phenomena through the use of three solenoids (attached to a modified motorcycle helmet) passing a magnetic pulse through the frontal lobes of the brain.
Solenoids are called “magnetic coils” by psychiatrists, who use them as a non-intrusive alternative to implantable electrodes for stimulating the brain. (see Hallett, Mark and Cohen, Leonardo, “Magnetism: a New Method for Stimulation of Nerve and Brain”, JAMA, 7/28/89, pg 530)
John Alexander: I have served as chief of Advanced Human Technology for the Army Intelligence and Security Command (1982-84) and, during the preparation of the EHP [Enhancing Human Performance] Report, was director of the Advanced Systems Concepts Office at the U.S. Army Laboratory Command.”
Alexander stated: “..psychotronic weapons lack traditional scientific documentation, and I do not suggest that research projects be carried out in that field.” (Alexander, Col. John, “A Challenge to the Report”, New Realities, March/April 1989
Psi Tech Founded in 1989 by President Ed Dames. Their Vice President is Jonina Dourif. A John L. Turner is listed as a monitor. Board Members include John B. Alexander and Gen. Albert Stubblebine
According to an anonymous BBC television reporter, Dr Louis West headed up the medical oversight for the Ft. Meade remote-viewing operational unit. (Constantine, Alex, “‘Remote Viewing’ at Stanford Research Institute or Illicit CIA Mind Control Experimentation?”) West was also a “Member of the medical oversight board for Science Applications International Corp. remote-viewing research in early 1990s”
RF MEDIA, 1990, CIA:
Electronic, multi-directional subliminal suggestion and programming
Location: Boulder, Colorado (Location of main cell telephone node, national television synchronization node)
Targeting: national population of the United States
Frequencies: ULF VHF HF Phase modulation
Implementation: Television and radio communications, the “videodrome” signals
urpose: Programming and triggering behavioral desire, subversion of psychic abilities of population, preparatory processing for mass electromagnetic control
Pseudonym: “Buzz Saw” E.E.M.C.
TOWER, CIA, NSA:
Electronic cross country subliminal programming and suggestion
Targeting: Mass population, short-range intervals, long-range cumulative
Frequencies: Microwave, EHF SHF
Methodology: Cellular telephone system, ELF modulation
urpose: Programming through neural resonance and encoded information
Effect: Neural degeneration, DNA resonance modification, psychic suppression
Pseudonym: “Wedding Bells”
More than 1500 six-month old black and hispanic babies in Los Angeles are given an “experimental” measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected to their children was experimental.
SRI’s remote viewing project moved to SAIC
According to Defense News, April 13 – 19, 1992, the US deployed an electromagnetic pulse weapon (EMP) in Desert Storm, designed to mimic the flash of electricity from a nuclear bomb. The Sandia National Laboratory had built a 23,000 square meter laboratory on the Kirkland Air Force Base, 1989, to house the Hermes II electron beam generator capable of producing 20 Trillion Watt pulses lasting 20 billionths to 25 billionths of a second. This X-ray simulator is called a Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator. A stream of electrons hitting a metal plate can produce a pulsed X-ray or gamma ray. Hermes II had produced electron beams since 1974. These devices were apparently tested during the Gulf War, although detailed information on them is sparse
Eldon Byrd told me [Dick Farley] about it [lawsuit w/ Randi] over dinner at C. B. “Scott” Jones home one evening of several we spent together back in ’92 and ’93 there”
“Byrd said that Uri Geller put up $10,000 for his legal costs. Byrd and Geller are good friends, from back in the ’70s…”
“Byrd says he had been “set-up” by postal inspectors, part of some initiative to discredit him because he was too public with his personal interests in “psi,” etc. He’d allegedly had some Navy security clearance issues dog him, which contributed to his early retirement as one of their senior most civilian scientists.”
“When he was still with the Navy, Dr. Byrd was the contract manager for some of the research Michael Persinger did, on ‘neuro-impacts’ of various EMFs and ELFs. Something about wave-propagation and influences on submariners if somebody “beeped” them with mind-influencing EMF signals, etc., that kind of thing.” (Farley, Dick, “False Memory Spindrome”)
John Alexander. Last year, Alexander organized a national conference devoted to researching ‘reports of ritual abuse, near-death experiences, human contacts with extraterrestrial aliens and other so-called anomalous experiences,’ the Albuquerque Journal reported in March 1993
December. “The U.S. Army’s Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center is conducting a one-year study of ACOUSTIC BEAM TECHNOLOGY … the command awarded the one year study to Scientific Applications and Research Associates of Huntington Beach CA. Related research is conducted at the Moscow based Andreev Institute.” (From “U.S. Explores Russian Mind Control Technology”, by Barbara Opal, Defense News, Jan 11-17, 1993. Research by Harlan Girard and others.)
Dan Smith [Aviary’s physicist “Chicken Little] was for a while engaged to marry the illustrious Rosemary Ellen Guiley, who numbered Von Ward, Jones, Colin Andrews, and a host of others on her “Center for Crop Circle Studies” advisory panel, back in ’92-93. Rosie’s moved ahead (upward?) to the angelic realms, following the market and the money. But she does have the corner on American expertise on Wicca, and her close relationship with former (now retired) Defense Intelligence Agency “weird desk” and senior “applied anomalous” guy, Dale Graff …who was from my contacts with Scott Jones’ [Aviary’s Prince Hans Adam- & Laurence Rockefeller-funded retired Naval Intell Cmdr. Cecil B. “Scott” Jones] affiliated with Sen. Claiborne Pell, Dale Graff being the latter’s “inside man” at DIA.
The “Aquarium Conspiracy” by Dan Smith and Rosemary Ellen Guiley
In the beginning there was eschatology–the branch of theology dealing with the end times. Dan, having spent many years first studying physics and then metaphysics, came to the conclusion that the scientists have been looking at the world upside down. Mind, not matter, is the foundation for all realities. Moreover, the materialist paradigm was in danger of imminent collapse, being subverted on the inside by its own contradictions, and on the outside by the growing body of evidence for the paranormal.
Creating and maintaining a reality is no easy game. It requires a lot of magic, and a lot of conscious critters like ourselves who are pretty good at collective self-deception. Fortunately– or perhaps unfortunately–our particular reality game has about reached its natural conclusion, and we are waking up to the fact that mind and matter are not separate. We are undergoing an exciting but stressful revolution in our collective consciousness. This revolution, or global spiritual emergency, will bring upheavals and overloads in our global consciousness that will impact the material Earth for better or worse, and may quickly get out of control. We also will be opening up to other realities that will be impacting us as well.
Our present very tidy sense of reality and its boundaries is due to become much more fluid and permeable. Every spiritual tradition takes very seriously its prophesies about the end of the world, but for the first time we are seeing these prophesies turning into believable predictions of earth and reality changes. That is how Dan fell from physics into eschatology. [This last remark tells us that Rosemary is the one doing the writing here.]
After experiencing numerous slammed doors among his former scientific colleagues, he decided that the most logical place to find fellow eschatologists would be in various intelligence agencies and among investigators of the paranormal.
Dan next addressed how to communicate about the eschaton. Even a small hint that the government is worried about the end of the world might start a chain reaction of panic, which could possibly serve as a trigger for the eschaton.
On the other hand, people inside the government might be wanting to set up a kind of civil defense network vis a vis the eschaton, and so they would be looking for people on the outside who could much more freely network among the general public.
An important link in the communication chain is what has become known as the Aviary. This is the final link next to the public network, and so it must be heavily disguised by its own surrealistic smoke screen.
The Aviary functions best by amplifying people’s own misconceptions about the paranormal. It does this by helping to overinflate individual pieces of the puzzle so that particular investigators get pushed further into their own blind alleys.
People are encouraged to be so distracted by the trees that they fail to see the forest. This cacophony by people looking for truth in all the strangest places provides an excellent cover for the deadly serious business of clearing the decks and battening down the hatches for the eschaton event.
It is like a Manhattan Project going on behind the scenes of alien grays and praying mantises having sex with humans.
However, this eschaton conspiracy is being orchestrated by higher powers, and we don’t mean the Committee of 300. Very few of the people even near the center of the orchestration have a clear picture of what is coming down, but they do know that something is coming and that they will have front row seats.
[Interesting that Guiley compares the gov actions behind the scenes to the Manhattan Project, since that resulted in the most destructive weapon known to historical man up to that time. And now, subconsciously, Ms. Guiley has revealed to us the agenda: Total destruction of the masses of humanity, except for those few elite who “help the project,” and “sign agreements” to keep secrets, such as herself. “When you dance with the Devil, the devil doesn’t change; the Devil Changes YOU.]
The Manhattan Project relative to the eschaton is a global civilian network of people who will serve as a lightning rod for the cosmic energies coming in during the consciousness revolution. They will be looking to channel these energies into expanded realities. Thus, they will provide a degree of protection for those people who can find their places alongside the network.
Outside of the network there will be greater levels of trauma and confusion. The pieces of the network are already in place, the remaining task is to properly activate and link the pieces into a critical mass of awareness. This last step is now underway. This is how an Aviary helps to spawn an Aquarium, and how birds learn to swim. The Aquarium is our business, and we are working to reach people who are ready to be activated in the consciousness revolution.
And here Ms. Guiley has described exactly what the C’s have described for us and have helped us to uncover: that the Negative heirarchy has created the New Age Movement, the Human Potential Movement, the “Contactee” and Gray Abduction Phenomenon, for the express purpose of locking the planet into total Control – to make it a “headquarters” for the Lords of Darkness. And, as the C’s have said regarding the “Higher Powers” Ms. Guiley reverentially refers to above:
A: At those levels, there is only one “Master.”
Q: (L) Those levels? What levels?
A: Levels that can hand down orders to bury or suppress. … Those who are at that level have been bought and paid for by both giving knowledge of upcoming cataclysmic vents, and promised survival and positions of power after. It is not difficult to realize the there is a body of such types in positions of power already. Power is not only attractive to such types, they are the kind most easily corrupted by it.
We also notice that Ms. Guiley has compared the process to that of “birds learning to swim.” In other words, she and Mr. Smith are giving their signature as part of the Scale Gang – the Reptilian Overlords, as opposed to the Avian followers of the All Giving Mother.
According to Dan Smith, who undoubtedly is privy to a wealth of accurate, though not widely known UFO information, this data is being released through him due to the grave concern by high government officials about impending metaphysical catastrophe – the eschaton, or the end of the world.
What we see, however, is that Dan Smith and Rosemary Ellen Guiley are being used to further the agenda of the World Controllers who do, indeed, suspect the “End of the World,” but have their own plans to survive it at the expense of most of the human population. It is this agenda that Ms. Guiley is now actively promoting in her writings, columns in Fate Magazine, which has become an organ of COINTELPRO, etc. We do notice that Ms. Guiley – like Whitley Strieber – and the rest of the gang who play ball with the Matrix Controllers, have NO TROUBLE whatsoever geting “30 books published,” and hobnobbing with the CIA.
John Mack: According to Dick Farley, former aide to C.B. Scott Jones, Laurance Rockefeller funnelled “$194,000 to Mack’s Harvard- affiliated ‘Center for Psychology and Social Change,’ via the Washington, D.C. chartered ‘Human Potential Foundation, Inc.’in the 1993-1994 period. Mack’s group then started ‘PEER’ (Program for Exceptional Experience Research) and operated an ‘alien abductee support group’ who, among other functions they served, became fodder for Dr. Mack’s 1994 ‘Abductions.'”
According to Donna Bassett, who infiltrated Mack’s abductee support group, the Center for Psychology and Social Change (co-founded by Robert Jay Lifton) receives $250,000 a year from Rockefeller. Rockefeller also gave $194,000 to PEER (Program for Extraordinary Experience Research), along with various other donations. According to Bassett, Mack claims to have received funding from an ex-CIA source
Kit Green Director of General Motor’s Biomedical Research department. Attended closed meetings with Dr. Igor Smirnov, under the auspices of his membership in the National Academy of Sciences panel on 21st Century Army Technologies. (Defense Electronics, 7/93. Reprinted in Flatland
Smirnov gave a series of closed meetings in Northern Virginia, starting on 3/17/93, to the FBI, CIA, DIA, and ARPA concerning Russian developments with a device that allegedly implanted thoughts in a subject’s mind. The FBI was considering using this device to implant the voice of God in David Koresh’s mind, telling him to surrender.
Other, non-intelligence participants included Dr. Richard Nakamura of the National Institute of Health [I think he may now be the director].
This technology was supposedly used by the Russians against civilians in Afghanistan, and possibly on the Red Army to prepare them for battle.
The American rights to this technology is owned by a Richmond, Virginia company called Psycotechnologies Corp. (Defense Electronics, 7/93. Reprinted in Flatland #11)
February 28, beginning of 51 day siege on the Branch Davidians at Waco Texas, which ended in the death of more than 80 people. Until this incident, the electromagnetic weapons had kept a very low profile. But in the documentary video, “Waco: The Big Lie Continues”, footage from the British Broadcasting (BBC) shows at least three EM weapons used by U.S. government agents. First, the noise generators used against the Davidians. Second, a powerful strobe light, shown during a nighttime sequence. And the third was the Russian psycho-acoustic weapon, considered, but agents deny use of this weapon against the Waco people. FBI agents met with Dr. Igor Smirnov in Arlington VA to discuss the possiblility of using the weapon against the Davidians. (From “A Subliminal Dr. Strangelove”, by Dorinda Elliot and John Barry, Newsweek, Aug 22, 1994)
Janet Reno is also publicly connected to John Alexander (eg, the recent “Non-Lethal Warfare” conference).
See also: The Man Who Knew Too Much – What really happened at Waco? Carlos Ghigliotti thought he had the answer, and now he’s dead. Was he a victim of conspiracy, or his own obsession? – Ghigliotti, an expert in thermal imaging, was retained by the House Government Reform Committee last year to probe allegations that FBI agents–despite their vehement assertions to the contrary–had fired their weapons at members of the Branch Davidian sect, trapping helpless women and children inside the burning compound on April 19, 1993. Last fall I had quoted him in The Post as saying that infrared surveillance tapes–as well as regular videos made by the media–contained proof that the FBI fired: “The gunfire . . . is there, without a doubt.”
In March he was finalizing his report to Congress, and he also had been advising attorneys waging a $100 million wrongful death suit against the government on behalf of the Davidians and their heirs. “I still have a lot of shocking evidence to show you,” he wrote in a March 28 letter to Michael Caddell, the lead attorney in that case.
When his body was discovered, Ghigliotti’s office got the scrutiny that Vince Foster’s warranted after his suicide. Police sealed the premises and carted off computers and files. Rep. Dan Burton (R-Ind.), whose committee had retained Ghigliotti, called for “a full and thorough investigation.” The Justice Department’s special counsel on Waco, John C. Danforth, asked a federal court to take control of all evidence from Ghigliotti’s firm.
I’d spent hours in that workshop, reviewing tapes on his eight-monitor JVC video console, looking for evidence of government perfidy in grainy images, debating theories while his beloved cats, Simone and Sipowicz, lolled at our feet. Carlos could be exasperating–brusque, inflexible and short-tempered, a fireplug of a guy who carried himself like a street fighter–but he had a soft side. More than once he admitted to breaking down in tears while examining Waco evidence. Someone had to speak for the dead, he told me. He believed with all his heart that he had finally uncovered the Truth. “I’ve solved the case,” he announced during one of his calls in March, urging me to come once again to his lab to review videotapes. “I know exactly what happened.” But I was busy on other stories and never made it back. Now there was one more mystery to unravel: Was Carlos the final victim of Waco?
The Russian government is offering to share with the United States in a bilateral Center for Psychotechnologies the Soviet mind-control technology developed during the 1970s. The work was funded by the Department of Psycho-Correction at the Moscow Medical Academy.
“Acoustic psycho-correction involves the transmission of specific commands via static or white noise bands into the human subconscious …”.
The Russian experts, among them former KGB General George Kotov, present in a paper a list of software and hardware available for $80,000. (From Opal article, “U.S. Explores Russian Mind Control Technology”.)
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, HAARP
The HAARP Program is jointly managed by the US Air Force and the US Navy, and is based in Gakona, Alaska. It is designed to “understand, simulate and control ionospheric processes that might alter the performance of communication and surveillance systems.” The HAARP system intends to beam 3.6 Gigawatts of effective radiated power of high frequency radio energy into the ionosphere in order to (all of which may be disinformation):
* Generate extremely low frequency (ELF) waves for communicating with submerged submarines
* Conduct geophysical probes to identify and characterize natural ionospheric processes so that techniques can be developed to mitigate or control them
* Generate ionospheric lenses to focus large amounts of high frequency energy, thus providing a means of triggering ionospheric processes that potentially could be exploited for Department of Defense purposes,
* Electron acceleration for infrared (IR) and other optical emissions which could be used to control radio wave propagation properties
* Generate geomagnetic field aligned ionization to control the reflection/scattering properties of radio waves,
* Use oblique heating to produce effects on radio wave propagation, thus broadening the potential military applications of ionospheric enhancement technology.
During 1993, John Alexander and his team were working with Dr Igor Smirnov
By controlling the nature of the magnetic fields, causing them to simulate brain patterns, Persinger is able to stimulate strong emotions and hallucinations, including the illusion of touch and movement. (Blackmore, Susan, “Alien Abduction: The Inside Story”, New Scientist, 11/19/94, pg 29-31. Persinger is shown demonstrating this device on the British TV show Horizon entitled “Close Encounters”, written and narrated by Susan Blackmore. For their efforts, both Persinger and Blackmore have been accused of being in the Aviary.)
Persinger was on the Board of Advisors for the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. Informal advisor to SRI’s remote viewing program
As of 1994, Smirnov has worked at Moscow’s Institute of Psycho-Correction, using subliminal technology as therapy for drug abusers and others. The Institute has been strapped for cash after the the fall of the Soviet Union, but it has refused to accept business from the Russian Mafia. (Elliott, Dorinda and Barry, John, “A Subliminal Dr. Strangelove”, Newsweek, 8/22/94, pg 57) However, Smirnov works with the Human Potential Foundation and John Alexander.
Note: I’m not sure how Smirnov’s device is supposed to work. Later reports claim it would work using inaudible, subliminal suggestions (spliced into phone conversations in the case of David Koresh). The device is definitely supposed to make the subject “hear” voices, as the FBI wanted to use Charlton Heston as the voice of God. This is definitely a different strategy from other subliminal techniques, which are designed to produce mere suggestions.
With a technique called “gene tracking,” Dr. Garth Nicolson at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers that many returning Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered strain of Mycoplasma incognitus, a microbe commonly used in the production of biological weapons. Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40 percent of the HIV protein coat, indicating that it had been man-made.
Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report revealing that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense has used hundreds of thousands of military personnel in human experiments and for intentional exposure to dangerous substances. Materials included mustard and nerve gas, ionizing radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, and drugs used during the Gulf War .
James Randi: I told an audience at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society about the hilarious claims that Eldon Byrd made in court concerning important projects he’d been working on as a parapsychologist. One was a wrist watch that would protect the lucky wearer against the deadly effects of hair dryers and electric razors that bombard the brain with those 60-Hertz electrical waves. The watch would sense the phase of the offending waves and generate an opposing field to protect the subject…. But by far the best laugh of the trial was generated by Byrd when he proudly announced that, as a result of reading and believing the book, The Secret Life of Plants, he had a project going to train seaweed so that it could warn naval divers of danger.” (Randi Hotline, 3/27/95)
SAIC Military contractor, located in California. Click here for their home page. [I couldn’t find anything on remote viewing.] SAIC took over the research aspect of the remote-viewing program from SRI when director Ed May and his Cognitive Sciences Laboratorymoved there in 1991.
“SAIC, previously indicted on ten felony fraud counts by the Justice Department relating to its management of a Superfund toxic cleanup site, has several prominent board members: Admiral Bobby Inman, former NSA Director and Deputy Director of the CIA; Melvin Laird, Richard Nixon’s Defense Secretary; and retired General Max Thurman, Commander of the Panama Invasion. Previous board members include: Robert Gates, former CIA Director; William Perry, current  Secretary of Defense; and John Deutch, current  CIA Director.”
SAIC owns Network Solutions, Inc. (NSI), which in September, 1995 took over control of Internet Domain Name registration from the National Science Foundation. (“Spooks Spook Net Users”, Paranoia, Issue 12, pg 26)
SAIC is also working with non-lethal weapons, but I haven’t heard any details. (Brandt, Daniel, “Mind Control and the Secret State”)
U.S. Government admits that it had offered Japanese war criminals and scientists who had performed human medical experiments salaries and immunity from prosecution in exchange for data on biological warfare research.
Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, TX and Boca Raton, Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections.
NIDS established: At one point, millionaire Robert Bigelow offered to provide funding to the tune of a million dollars for a cooperative research effort of the “big three” of ufology – MUFON (Mutual UFO Network), CUFOS (Center for UFO Studies), and FUFOR (Fund for UFO Research). This effort, sometimes referred to as “the Coalition” fell apart, reportedly when Bigelow tried to control the direction of the group. UFO skeptic Philip Klass reportedly accused John Alexander of causing the break-up, although Alexander denies it.
NIDS … Maccabee has recently worked with The National Institute for Discovery Sciences, and probably worked with or near Eldon Byrd, as the two both worked at the Naval Surface Weapons Center at the same time.
Courtney Brown: Author of Cosmic Voyage, Dutton, 1996. Brown was trained in remote-viewing by Ed Dames, and took courses at the Monroe Institute.
Brown’s book details his psychic conversations with aliens, and repeats allegations similar to those made by Dames, Ingo Swann, Joe McMoneagle, and others. Among them:
* Martians live among us, and seek our help to return home. They live in South America and under the mountain Santa Fe Baldy
* Brown psychically contacted Jesus, Guru Dev, and Buddha
* The idea for the Star Trek TV series was inspired by aliens to get humanity accustomed to the idea of working with alien races in a Federation.
* Specific plot elements of the Star Trek: Next Generation series were suggested to someone on the show via an implanted telepathy device.
Many of Dames’ claims concerning the Martians are presented in Brown’s book, but Brown implies that this is the first time any of this has been revealed to the remote viewers, even though the sessions took place in 1994 and Dames made similar claims as early as 1993 (see Stark, Debby, “Talking to Ed Dames”, NM MUFON News, June/July 1993
Courtney Brown founded the Farsight Institute in 1995. The Institute teaches a Scientific Remote Viewing course called “Farsight Voyager”, which costs around $3,000.00. Here’s the Institute’s home page.
Radin is currently working with Joe McMoneagle, in a project involved with remote-viewing future technology. (Compuserve On Line Conversation w/ Joe McMoneagle, 1/4/96)
Edgar Mitchell briefed then CIA director George Bush on the activities and results of the Institute of Noetic Sciences. (Mitchell, Edgar, The Way of the Explorer, GP Putnam’s Sons, 1996, pg 91)
Department of Defense admits that Desert Storm soldiers were exposed to chemical agents.
In April, 1997, millionaire Robert Bigelow donated $3.7 million dollars to the University of Nevada to found the Bigelow Chair of Consciousness
Studies, which allows students to take undergraduate courses dealing with parapsychology for college credit. These courses are related, though not formally linked, to Dean Radin’s research at the University’s Consciousness Research Laboratory, which Bigelow once funded.
Tart is currently teaching at the University of Las Vegas as part of Robert Bigelow’s Bigelow Chair of Consciousness Studies. (Patton, Natalie; “UNLV recruits authority in ESP”, Las Vegas Review-Journal, 7/10/97)
Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter demanding an investigation into bioweapons use & Gulf War Syndrome.
Michael Persinger: My research has not been ‘funded by U.S. interests’. All of the money for our human research for the last 30 years has been from my personal income as a professor. The only funding ($10,000) we ever obtained from the U.S. was from the U.S. Navy, thanks to Eldon Byrd, to evaluate the effects of 0.5 Hz rotating magnetic fields upon the degranulation of mast cells in the rat brain. The effect was small but statistically significant.” (Letter to Wes Thomas, 1/6/99)
Terminal experiments are being carried out on Women, babies, men of all ages.
George W. Bush loses the popular vote in the Presidential election, but wins in the Electoral College. He was, as a practical matter, declared winner. See, Bush v. Gore. People are still debating whether what happened constituted Bush “defeating” Gore.
George W. Bush “Sure I will,” In a news conference on July 29, 2000, televised on CNN, George W. Bush reply when a citizen asked if he would tell the public “what the hell is going on” with UFOs. Bush indicated that vice-presidential candidate Dick Chaney would use his experience as Secretary of Defense to address the issue.
On September 11th, terrorist activity prompts calls for increased federal government action to quell both domestic and international security concerns.
Portions of the US airport security system are nationalized without significant objection. Armed soldiers are stationed at airports.
On January 1st all members of the European Union (except Denmark, Sweden, and the UK) begin to replace their traditional physical currencies with
the new Euro.
Enron, the nation’s seventh largest company, goes bust amidst rumors of insider trading, document shredding, etc. Thousands of people suffer large financial losses. Calls for federal regulation of energy, business, securities, and the accounting industry, etc, increase. At mid-January Senate hearings, the outrage is palpable on “both sides of the aisle.” By early February, it is common knowledge that the Federal Government had passed a law giving immunity to certain accountants and auditors for the sorts of actions that resulted in the Enron collapse. Criminal indictments and convictions follow.
The following provisions of the Federal Bill of Rights still do not “apply to the States, [i.e., are not incorporated]:” the 2nd Amendment; the Federal 3rd Amendment; the “Grand Jury Indictment” clause of the Federal 5th Amendment; the Federal 7th Amendment’s requirement of a jury trials in civil cases; and the “Excessive Fines and Bail” clause of the Federal 8th Amendment.
By March, all EU countries [except Denmark, Sweden, and the UK] have withdrawn their old national currencies from circulation.
While “Official Europe” moves toward closer federation, European “anti-federalist” movements gain notoriety. In France, a well known nationalist presidential candidate, Jean-Marie Le Pen, gains substantial support.
By the end of June, it is clear that Enron is not the only US company with bookkeeping issues. Telecommunications giant, WorldComª admits that it improperly inflated its profit figures for 15months. The total inflation is estimated at 3.8 Billion Dollars [$3.8 x 109]. Several other firms admit to accounting irregularities as well.
The US refuses to submit its troops to the “war crimes” jurisdiction of the new International Criminal Court.
In July, Yale Senior Research Fellow, Immanuel Wallerstein’s “The Eagle Has Crash Landed” appears in the July/August issue of Foreign Policy.
Chicago Tribune October 10: Army seeks to expand chemical, biological drills; But critics fear possible effects around Utah site By Judith Graham – For 60 years, the U.S. military has tested its ability to withstand chemical or biological attacks at a desolate site in the Utah desert. Protective gear for troops, heavy equipment such as tanks and aircraft, and detection systems designed to signal an attack have all been run through intense simulations, sometimes using active chemical and biological agents. – Now, with a possible war with Iraq looming on the horizon, the military plans to more than double its testing at the 798,000-acre Dugway Proving Ground, 80 miles southwest of Salt Lake City, and to vastly expand its counterterrorism training activities at the site. The plans are disclosed in a draft environmental impact statement issued by Dugway, which has received little attention in Utah or nationally. The statement indicates that the Army facility wants to expand biological defense testing from an average of 11 events a year to 26, and boost chemical defense testing from 30 events a year to 70. Counterterrorism training would go from two events to 58 events a year.
October 21: The Pentagon last week revealed that the United States secretly tested chemical and biological weapons on American soil, possibly exposing thousands of civilians in Hawaii, Florida, and Alaska to toxic agents. Roughly 5,500 servicemen were involved in the tests, also conducted in Maryland, Florida, and Utah, from 1962 to 1973. More than 50 veterans are seeking compensation for related health problems, but Pentagon and Veterans Affairs officials say they have yet to make the link between their symptoms and exposure to the biological “simulants” like E. coli, a bacterium believed at the time to be harmless. One of the agents used, Bacillus globigii, has since been found to cause infections in people with weakened immune systems. “The reasoning behind all of these,” says William Winkenwerder, the Pentagon’s top health official, “is not altogether clear from the record that we have.” Will it ever be?
The Army has acknowledged that between 1949 and 1969, 239 populated areas from coast to coast were blanketed with various organisms during tests designed to measure patterns of dissemination in the air, weather effects, dosages, optimum placement of the source and other factors. Testing over such areas was supposedly suspended after 1969, but there is no way to be certain of this. In any event, open air spraying continued at Dugway Proving Ground in Utah.
Good source impeccably documented. Unfortunately relies a lot on McRae’s Mind Wars which I have since found to be a little dubious. However Hambone acknowledges this.
A background to the HAARP project.
Prepared by Rosalie Bertell, Ph.D., GNSH
Health Freedom, Codex Issues
Subject: Major Electromagnetic Mind Control Projects: Timeline to Present
From: John Hammell email@example.com
JH: A little flaky but interesting
Timeline: Electromagnetic Weapons
by Judy Wall, Editor, Resonance Newsletter
Behind Closed Doors
(or go to http://www.stealthskater.com)
26 May 2007
National Security Archive
2130 H St NW Ste 701
Washington DC, District of Columbia 20037
I wish to thank you again for your excellent assistance and detailed answers to my queries the other day on the telephone. Thanks again, you were very kind, tolerant, and thoughtful.
As per our conversation of Friday, May 25, 2007, please mail all available government documents (redacted or otherwise – I believe you said there were thirty-five pages in total) regarding MK-ULTRA SubProject 130: Personality Theory, to the above listed mailing address.
You quoted me a price of $7.92 for attaining these documents. Please find attached a money order in that amount for the aforementioned documents.
The information that follows is primarily for my own personal records, but also might be of interest to you, The National Security Archive or other persons and organizations. What follows is by no means new or original research and has been documented by a wide variety of other researchers and authors in the past. (The exception being the ACIM milleu’s connection to SRI-Scientology).
The following information essentially serves as a rough bullet point outline and should not by any means be construed as a cohesive narrative of events, past or present, regarding Dr. William Thetford or the A Course In Miracles book.
Beware, the “critique” I engage in here (especially in the latter half) is not “structuralist”. There are also the usual concerns regarding “conspiracy theories”. I have extensively studied, deconstructed and analyzed this term over the years. Please refer to the following compendium of information regarding this subject.
Most of the following biographical information regarding Dr. William Thetford and A Course in Miracles is primarily available from online Wikipedia documents. As of this revision 3/2010, Wikipedia has deleted the criticism and controversy section from their ACIM page.
Dr. William Thetford, along with David Saunders, headed CIA MK-ULTRA SubProject 130: Personality Theory, while at Columbia University between 1971-1978.
Dr. Thetford’s Professional Vita (also available on the A Course in Miracles web site) makes reference to his involvement in a Personality Theory Research Project while Professor of Medical Psychology at Columbia University, though the information does not specifically cite this as a CIA MK- ULTRA SubProject. (The information might have recently been altered to reflect involvement in MK-ULTRA.)
Dr. William Thetford also directly assisted Dr. Helen Schucman as a so-called ‘scribe’ in the initial transcription (or ‘channeling’) of the A Course in Miracles book originally published in 1975 by an organization called The Foundation for the Investigation of Para Sensory Phenomena.
Dr. Thetford was working for the CIA conducting Personality Theory experiments under MK-ULTRA at the same time the A Course in Miracles book was published in 1975.
A Course in Miracles is commonly known as “the Bible of the New Age.”
The Foundation for the Investigation of Para Sensory Phenomena may have been funded by members involved with or employed by the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), Menlo Park, California, as Remote Viewers at the time. One of the individuals with connections to SRI was Judith Skutch, the president and founder of The Foundation for the Investigation of Para Sensory Phenomena, which, once again, originally published A Course in Miracles in 1975.
Other researchers in this area have speculated that Judith Skutch’s Foundation for the Investigation of Para Sensory Phenomena may have even been an outright front organization for the CIA. The publishing of A Course in Miracles may have been a CIA operation from the beginning.
It has also been claimed Skutch funded many of the early experiments by Israeli telepath Uri Geller. Geller worked for SRI during this same time period.
A Course in Miracles legal documents have revealed that Skutch met with David Hurt (an engineer associated with SRI), Russell Targ, Thetford and Schucman at a luncheon in 1974. Russell Targ was co-founder of the Stanford Research Institute´s CIA funded Remote Viewing program at SRI during this same time period. Targ´s collegue at SRI was chief researcher Dr. Harold Puthoff. Puthoff was a high ranking ‘Operating Thetan’ for the Church of Scientology and was also working under the auspices of the CIA’s MK-ULTRA program along with Targ when this meeting took place. As previously stated, William Thetford, the so-called co-’scribe‘ of ACIM, was also under the payroll of the CIA during the same period, conducting research under MK-ULTRA SubProject 130: Personality Theory at Columbia University.
In 1998 Russell Targ wrote a book entitled Miracles of Space. Targ and Scientology claim Targ was never a member of L. Ron Hubbard´s so-called ´church.´
According to the Washington Post of August 7, 1977, high-level ‘Operating Thetans‘ (Harold Puthoff, Pat Price, Ingo Swann) from the Church of Scientology were in charge of all Remote Viewing and other related CIA mind control operations at Stanford Research Institute under the auspices of CIA MK-ULTRA during this time period, which began sometime in 1973. (See the Washington Post article of August 7, 1977, Psychic Spying? by John L. Wilhelm regarding the connection between the Stanford Research Institute, CIA mind control operations via MK-ULTRA and the Church of Scientology.)
MK-ULTRA was ‘investigated’ by the US Congress’ Church Committee and the group appointed by President Ford known as the Rockefeller Commission in 1975. MK-ULTRA is now obviously a matter of public record. As you stated, all of the scanned CIA MK-ULTRA documents are available to the public from the CIA itself on CD-ROM format.
Fast forwarding to the present: Unity Church, a ‘Christian New Age’ tax exempt organization, with locations in numerous communities across the United States, hosts many A Course In Miracles seminars on a weekly basis, and includes the information contained in the book as part of their regular ‘church services.’
I spoke with a woman named ‘Mxxxx’ at the Unity Church in Eugene, Oregon, via telephone on Friday, May 25, 2007, and she stated Unity Church holds seminars in A Course In Miracles twice a week. I requested documentation from her to this effect via regular mail. She claimed that she would comply with this request. And, I might add, she seemed quite ‘happy’ and ‘joyful’ to mail any and all material made available from the church.
Unity Church also sponsors or hosts UFO seminars with titles like: ´UFOs: Earth’s Cosmic Watergate´ and ´Flying Saucers ARE Real.’ These seminars espouse a ‘spirituality’ similar to those found in UFO cults such as the former Heaven’s Gate in San Diego, California and the Church of Scientology. Usually, the ‘information’ disseminated at these UFO seminars claims that a giant, invisible UFO mother ship – containing the spirits of deceased humans, famous leaders from history and supernatural beings such as angels or even Jesus Christ himself – is hovering just above the earth’s atmosphere.
The Scientology UFO ‘religious’ belief system is very similar, though much more detailed, complicated and multifaceted. Part of Scientology’s ‘creation mythos’ advocates passive acceptance of what basically constitutes ‘galactic genocide’ as part of its cult programming. Indeed, from the limited contact I have had with people who have been programmed by these and other similar types of off shoot UFO cult groups such as those found at Unity Church, advocacy of euthanasia or suicide are causally incorporated into their belief systems; even in their interpersonal relationships with others and are completely devoid of any critical analysis as to the larger implications of upholding such philosophies. Briefly, in this respect, similarities to Aldous Huxley’s novel, Brave New World (1932) have come to mind.
Scientology is considered to be a destructive, totalitarian cult by the German government and other European countries and is highly regulated there.
Unity Church and A Course In Miracles are ultimately all about forgiveness and prayer; yet this forgiveness exists in a spiritual construct devoid of basic human social justice.
This construct basically constitutes the same old, repacked and regurgitated snake oil peddled by ‘confidence men’ since the days of PT Barnum. The mantra goes something like this: ‘God will take care of everything and God will forgive everything;’ and therefore, accountability, responsibility, and oversight are not necessary. Thus, the organized crooks, mass murderers, torturers, destroyers of culture, various two bit thugs and other assorted sub humans are allowed to continue perpetuating their endless cycle of banal criminality at the expense of the innocent and the powerless. As a result, human justice and even human memory itself has now, for all intents and purposes, been eviscerated. This is the literal apotheosis of what the authors Gore Vidal and Studs Terkel have each separately called: ‘The United States of Amnesia‘ and ‘The United States of Alzheimer’s.‘
For example, in 2004, the A Course in Miracles website had an very interesting article regarding the Abu Graib Prisoner Abuse Scandal, in which it stated the following:
Let us, then, take a closer look at the Iraq prison scandal from the perspective A Course in Miracles gives us. We will be looking at the monstrous acts of other people, but the point is not to pass judgment on these people, but to use their example to illuminate ego dynamics common to all of us. I’m reminded of what Jesus once said to Helen [Dr. Helen Schucman] before giving an account of the ego lapses she and Bill [Dr. William Thetford] had fallen into on a particular day: “There is nothing of special interest about the events described below, except their typical nature” (Absence from Felicity, by Ken Wapnick, p. 260). The “monster” revealed by the Iraq prison scandal is all too typical, but if we are willing to look at it calmly, we will put ourselves in a position to let it go through forgiveness.
(What the Iraq Prison Abuse Scandal Reveals: Looking Calmly at the Monster and Letting It Go by Greg Mackie. Circle of Atonement, P.O. Box 4238, W. Sedona, AZ 86340. http://www.circlofa.org. firstname.lastname@example.org, 1-928-282-0790.)
This is an excellent example of what many other commentators, researchers, and authors have coined New Age Fascism (also see: From UFO’s to Yoga) and this particular type of mind control programming perfectly compliments the fascism promoted by the Christian and Religious Right or Right Wing Christian Evangelical movements in the United States. I fail to see the fundamental difference between the views espoused by Mr. Mackie above and the opinions communicated by Rush Limbaugh on his talk show. They are both essentially being apologists for the Bush Administration’s use of torture in conducting the so-called ‘War on Terror.‘
‘Students’ in A Course in Miracles programs (which evidently includes devotion to Oprah Winfrey – who has avidly and enthusiastically promoted the book on her television show) might also be involved in an experimental trauma healing treatment program called See Morg Matrix, which includes hypnosis and the evisceration (or ‘clearing’) of memories. Other research in this area has referred to these techniques as ‘pseudo-therapies’.
Involvement in the Unity Church mind control and UFO cult usually comes about through association with some form of unlicensed ‘therapist,’ healer or guru type figure. Possibly even ‘ordained ministers’ in Unity Church serve dual functions as ‘counselors’ or ‘therapists.’ In other words, possible involvement with Unity religion manifests itself as a result of someone seeking some form of psychotherapy, usually to heal childhood or adult trauma and abuse.
An unfortunate possible result and side effect of an individual being involved in this network of healing programs and therapies (and there are many more which I have not mentioned in this brief overview) can be the apparent disability of higher brain functions, including a basic inability to think clearly and engage in basic relationship psychodynamics. The book utilizes hypnotic, mantra-like repetition of concepts which are, more often than not, logically incoherent and are meant to brainwash and control the thoughts of the ‘student.’ I personally know of one person who has been reading A Course In Miracles almost exclusively, (in other words, without reading anything else – like a New York Times best seller, for example) for over twenty years. Indeed, these and other similar types of side effects are relayed in the criticism section from the A Course In Miracles web page documented by Wikipedia:
Some Doctrinal Christian apologists have considered it heretical or counterfeit. Author and Yogi, Joel Kramer, states that the Course could be considered a classic authoritarian example of programming thought to change beliefs. Anton van Harskamp, a German scholar of religion, says that the Course contains, “…endless variation on some universally meant insights in life…” that, “…brings readers of the book, [or] in any case this reader, [to] a mood in which bewilderment and boredom take turns”. Long time teacher of the Course, Hugh Prather, notes that ACIM students often become, “far more separate and egocentric,” with many ultimately, “[losing] the ability to carry on a simple conversation”. He admits that he and his wife Gayle, “…had ended up less flexible, less forgiving, and less generous than we were when we first started our path!
I believe that at the turn of the previous to the last century, similar procedures were carried out through damage to, or the surgical severing of, the nerve fibers connecting the pre frontal cortex to the thalamus of the brain. These were known as lobotomies to the functionaries at ‘Houses of Bedlam’ or asylums for the ‘insane.’ The end result of the procedures described in the above previous paragraphs is, in my opinion, basically the same as a lobotomy.
As mentioned previously, this letter is meant to be a brief overview of the connections between Unity Church, A Course In Miracles, CIA MK-ULTRA Artichoke Subproject 130 and the Stanford Research Institute.
There are many other high level individuals of dubious sanity who espouse equally unsound philosophies surrounding the ACIM millieu. Some of these individuals include: Lee Carroll (Kryon), who apparently channels nonsense with the blessing and sanction of the United Nations and Barbara Marx Hubbard, who openly advocates genocide. Further information about these and other caustic so-called New Age leaders is currently beyond the scope of this letter.
Though the MK-ULTRA program has been official declassified and considered terminated, the effects of the damage wrought by this program of psychological warfare (PSYOP) or ‘Mind War’ are still being felt in the year 2007.
Indeed, as I have stated in letters to Senator xx and Peter Dale Scott, among many others, I suspect a new and more high-tech COINTELPRO / MK-ULTRA hybrid domestic surveillance and harassment program may be currently operational today in the United States and is currently being used against US citizens.
One only need look at the stellar work of Nick Begich, MD, Mr. Kucinich in the House of Representatives (see HR 2977) and especially John J. McMurtrey, M.S., and his 2003 paper, Inner Voice, Target Tracking, and Behavioral Influence Technologies (see previous link), to really understand the extent of the potentially bottomless pit of a Pandora’s Box that has been opened by those Aldous Huxley called the ‘power elite.’
As a side note, John J. McMurtrey’s aforementioned paper contains eleven excellent and eye-opening pages of footnotes, with a great many US Patent Office numbers issued for related inventions, dating back to the early 1960’s. The complete document should still be available via Wikipedia, keyword search: Microwave Auditory Effect or Microwave Hearing.
All of the patents referenced in that document are readily available and easily accessible via the US Patent Office website complete with abstracts, claims and detailed descriptions.
Of special interest is Apparatus and Method for Remotely Monitoring and Altering Brain Waves, (United States Patent 3951134), which was issued in 1974, coincidentally, approximately the same year A Course In Miracles was published (1975). To the best of my knowledge, the United States Patent Office does not give patent numbers to inventions that do not work.
Similarly, Nick Begich, MD has done extensive research into the area of what the US military calls the Microwave Auditory Effect, a so-called non-lethal weapon capable of producing intra-cranial sound inside the head of a human target :
This area of research is one of the most important because it points to the ultimate weapon of political control: the ability to place information directly into the human brain, bypassing all normal filtering mechanisms.
In 1995, the US Department of Defense put forward the contract, “Communicating via the Microwave Auditory Effect; Awarding Agency: Department of Defense; SBIR Contract Number: F41624-95-C-9007″. The description of this technology, which would be used for direct communications with military personnel, is written as follows:
“Title: Communicating via the Microwave Auditory Effect. “Description: An innovative and revolutionary technology is described that offers a means of low-probability-of-intercept Radio Frequency (RF) communications. The feasibility of the concept has been established using both a low intensity laboratory system and a high power RF transmitter. Numerous military applications exist in areas of search and rescue, security and special operations.”
(Mind Control: The Ultimate Brave New World, Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 13, Number 2, February – March 2006)
In the August 28, 2005 edition of the Washington Post, an article entitled Xtreme Defense by Sharon Weinberger, stated that similar ’non-lethal’ weapons, as previously described above, are currently being utilized by private contractors and the US military in Iraq:
His latest is to use ultrasonic waves in the dazzler not just to blind enemies, but also to convey messages in their heads, similar to Gibbs’ Medusa project. Hearing voices from God is a ‘big thing’ in Arab culture according to Bitar. “We flash-blind them. And, while their eyes are shut, you could send a recorded message or deep guttural voice that echoes in the inside of their head…“
There is absolutely no doubt that these and other similar types of technologies and programs have been privatized and are being used extensively in theatre today in the Middle East to combat the so-called ‘War on Terror.’ These technologies may also be exasperating the ‘civil wars’ currently raging in Iraq and the Occupied Territories in Palestine.
Ultimately, the point that really needs to be emphasized, above any other is that which has been categorized as an ‘exotic or non-lethal weapon’ is a form of information weapon (the book A Course In Miracles serves a similar purpose – as an information weapon or a weapon of propaganda). Thus, the warfare engaged in is an information type of warfare (or PSYOP) which, by default, constitutes propaganda. Propaganda or PSYOP, by its very definition under US code is lying, speaking an untruth or distorting the truth; as such, propagandizing the citizens of the US or using PSYOP against the citizens of the US is a criminal act under the current laws of the United States of America. [This law might have been overturned by Patriot Act Two]
Sarah Larson had been trying for months to get a break on her mortgage payments when a letter from her bank arrived in March. Sitting at the dining-room table of her Minneapolis house, the 33-year-old acupuncturist ripped open the envelope and pulled out a list of important documents demanded by Bank of America Corp.
Bank statements. A utility bill. Her death certificate.
Ms. Larson, who was struggling to make her $1,055-a-month mortgage after client appointments dropped off by half, is in good health. So she replied to the nation’s largest bank in assets with a letter.
“I am not sending a death certificate because I am not deceased,” she wrote. “I am currently still living.”
Turns out the bank had erroneously asked for proof of her demise—the sort of paperwork snafu that has roiled applicants since the Obama administration’s foreclosure-prevention plan was announced in February 2009.
The Home Affordable Modification Program has become famous for its snail’s-pace application process, duplicate requests for paperwork, and lenders who sometimes appear clueless as to the program’s rules.
New York Law Journal
A Judge Gets Lenders’ Attention
Deeds-in-Lieu Can Rescue Some Borrowers
So far, the 17-month-old effort has delivered a permanent fix to less than 15% of the borrowers the administration said it could ultimately help. Through June, roughly 398,000 of the nearly 1.3 million homeowners who entered the program had been granted permanent fixes. But more than 520,000 borrowers have fallen out of HAMP.
A Treasury Department spokesman says about 45% of homeowners who fail to get HAMP modifications eventually win loan restructurings from their mortgage companies.
Across the nation, applicants are flush with tales of the absurd. Lenders and mortgage-payment processors—sometimes in error—ask borrowers to demonstrate the impossible. Or they ask them to verify events of many decades past.
“They’ve been taking my living money for the last 8½ years,” Ms. Larson says about Bank of America. “It wasn’t until I wanted to do something on my loan that they questioned my being alive.”
In Cleveland, a borrower represented by a housing-counseling agency called Empowering and Strengthening Ohio’s People initially was rejected for a loan modification. The reason cited by his bank: His wife’s death was a “short-term hardship,” according to an email sent by the bank.
“His hardship was that his wife died,” says counselor Robert King, who successfully pushed to reverse the decision. The family had lost half its income upon the wife’s death, and the borrower had exhausted other means of paying the mortgage, Mr. King says.
Aurora Loan Services recently wanted Wanda and Marlyn Behrendt of Harris, Minn., both 78 years old, to hand over proof of her retirement income, even though she retired in 1993 from her job soldering circuit boards for Unisys Corp.
Her tax documents and bank statements weren’t proof enough.
“I don’t know if they think we are trying to pull the wool over their eyes, but we certainly aren’t,” Ms. Behrendt says. She finally managed to get a personal identification number from her old employer that allowed her to access the retirement documents needed to complete the application.
Aurora, based in Littleton, Colo., is allowing the couple to make reduced mortgage payments while it decides whether they qualify for a permanent modification. A spokeswoman says the company abides by all government guidelines.
To modify a loan, mortgage companies must verify a borrower’s income, residence and financial hardship. Borrowers can be asked for additional documents for various reasons. “We keep stressing: Don’t overcomplicate the process,” says Laurie Maggiano, director of policy for the Treasury’s Office of Homeownership Preservation.
Treasury officials say start-up challenges were inevitable, adding that they continue working to strengthen the program.
J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. has long marketed to Spanish-speaking clientele and maintains a Spanish-language website. But in an April email to Bertha Cueva, a counselor from the bank expressed confusion over her retirement documents from the Social Security Administration.
“Bertha, I did receive the 4506 and SSI form but it was not in English!” the counselor wrote.
“You can tell it’s a Social Security letter,” Ms. Cueva’s daughter says. “It’s just in Spanish. That doesn’t mean she’s not going to receive the money.”
A spokesman for J.P. Morgan says it has “many bilingual loan counselors” and processed Ms. Cueva’s loan-modification request “using the Spanish-language documents.”
Ms. Cueva’s daughter says her mother was recently denied a loan modification because her income wasn’t sufficient and will have to move out of the home in the next few months.
In some cases, applicants’ spending patters are scrutinized in ways they find perplexing. David Rodriguez-Cruz was denied a loan modification on his two-bedroom San Diego home this spring. He says a Wells Fargo & Co. employee told him he spends too much on gasoline—but not enough on household utilities.
“We spend more time outside the house,” says Mr. Rodriguez-Cruz, who has a one-hour round-trip commute from his job as a refrigeration technician near the Mexico border.
A Wells Fargo spokeswoman says the bank “must be able to document that the customer is facing a true hardship … [and] determine if the customer can make the payment on his or her own without our help and, if not, what payment he or she can afford.”
As for the still-living Ms. Larson, a Bank of America spokeswoman says an outside vendor hired to help collect her documents “erroneously included a death-certificate request in a document collection letter for a small group of customers.”
The “majority of affected customers” were sent a corrected letter and got a follow-up call, the bank spokeswoman says.
Earlier this month, Ms. Larson accepted Bank of America’s offer of a permanent loan modification.
“It wasn’t necessarily the deal of a lifetime, but it should allow me to make significant headway on my credit-card bills,” she says. “It’s going to save my neck in the short run.”
Write to Ruth Simon at email@example.com
Robert Galambos, a Harvard biologist, studied the inaudible sounds that allow bats to fly in the dark.
Dr. Robert Galambos, a neuroscientist whose work included helping to prove how bats navigate in total darkness and deciphering the codes by which nerves transmit sounds to the brain, died June 18 at his home in the La Jolla section of San Diego. He was 96.
The cause was congestive heart failure, his daughter Kate Galambos said.
Dr. Galambos began his career in the 1930s as the technology to study the interior of cells was coming into use. In animal studies, he implanted microelectrodes within single fibers of nerve tissue to capture electrochemical nerve impulses going from the ear to the brain. He then used newly invented electronic amplifiers to capture and record the results.
The result was learning the code by which nerves send messages about sound, said Steven A. Hillyard, a professor of neurosciences at the University of California, San Diego. Each nerve cell responded to a particular sound frequency or that frequency’s absence.
Beyond shedding light on how sensory stimuli become perceptions, Dr. Galambos’s rigorous experiments led to practical results like surgically implanted devices to provide a sense of sound to the profoundly deaf.
His later studies of electrical activity in the brainstem led him to develop a hearing test for infants and others who cannot verbalize. Surgery, medication or hearing aids can then be prescribed.
Dr. Hillyard called Dr. Galambos, the author of more than 200 scientific publications, “one of the giants of auditory research.”
Dr. Galambos’s best-known accomplishment was teaming with Donald R. Griffin in 1939 and 1940 to prove how bats use reflected sounds to detect objects. That idea had long been discussed, but never proved.
The first step was for Dr. Griffin, already an authority on bats, to publish a paper reporting that bats utter high-frequency cries inaudible to man. He used new techniques developed by G. W. Pierce, co-author of the paper, to capture the sounds.
Dr. Griffin then asked Dr. Galambos to use a method developed by Dr. Hallowell Davis, a Harvard professor and Dr. Galambos’s mentor, to measure bats’ hearing. Dr. Galambos found it an octave or more above that of other animals.
Thus it was proved that bats could make and hear extreme sound. The experimenters then hung wires from the ceiling of a room to show flying bats make ultrasonic cries when avoiding the wires. When their ears were plugged or their mouths tied shut, the bats blundered helplessly into the wires.
Some scientists reacted with disbelief. Dr. Griffin once wrote, “One distinguished physiologist was so shocked by our presentation at a scientific meeting that he seized Bob by the shoulders and shook him while expostulating, ‘You can’t really mean that!’ ”
But the solution stood. Dr. Galambos wrote that it “was so simple, complete and easy to understand that even schoolchildren told the story correctly after hearing it once.”
Robert Carl Galambos was born in Lorain, Ohio, on April 20, 1914. He earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in zoology from Oberlin College. His master’s thesis was on earthworm locomotion. He earned a Ph.D. from Harvard, writing his dissertation on the bat work.
While there, he assisted on a wartime study on whether loud explosions could cause permanent hearing loss. Part of the experiment involved him and others jumping into Boston Harbor as blasting caps were detonated nearby.
He next graduated with an M.D. from the University of Rochester, then returned to Harvard as a researcher after interning at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta.
He then went to Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, where he worked with David H. Hubel, a future Nobel Prize winner, on studies of how the auditory system of the cat responds to the unexpected. He later worked at Yale and the University of California, San Diego.
In recent years, he switched his attention from ears to eyes, and advanced the theory that the eye sends information to the brain in discrete packets tied to eye movements, rather than continuously.
Dr. Galambos’s first marriage, to Jeannette Wright Stone, ended in divorce. His second wife, Carol Armstrong Schulman, died. He is survived by his wife, Phyllis Johnson; three daughters from his first marriage, Joan Gilmore, Kate Galambos and Ann Holben; five grandchildren; and three great-grandchildren.
In 1960, while on an airplane, Dr. Galambos wrote that he had an inspiring thought: that the tiny cells that make up 40 percent of the brain, called glia, are as crucial to mental functioning as neurons.
“I know how the brain works!” he exclaimed to his companion.
But his superiors at Walter Reed found the theory so radical that he was soon job-hunting. The view at the time was that glia existed mainly to support neurons, considered the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. But Dr. Galambos clung to his belief, despite the failure of three experiments he performed in the 1960s.
Since then, scientific opinion has been shifting in his direction. In 2008, Ben A. Barres of the Stanford University School of Medicine wrote glowingly in the journal Neuron about the powerful role glia are now seen to play. He concluded, “Quite possibly the most important roles of glia have yet to be imagined.”
In the frantic last hours of Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal’s command in Afghanistan, when the world wondered what was racing through the general’s mind, he reached out to an unlikely corner of his life: the author of the book “Three Cups of Tea,” Greg Mortenson.
“Will move through this and if I’m not involved in the years ahead, will take tremendous comfort in knowing people like you are helping Afghans build a future,” General McChrystal wrote to Mr. Mortenson in an e-mail message, as he traveled from Kabul to Washington. The note landed in Mr. Mortenson’s inbox shortly after 1 a.m. Eastern time on June 23. Nine hours later, the general walked into the Oval Office to be fired by President Obama.
The e-mail message was in response to a note of support from Mr. Mortenson. It reflected his broad and deepening relationship with the United States military, whose leaders have increasingly turned to Mr. Mortenson, once a shaggy mountaineer, to help translate the theory of counterinsurgency into tribal realities on the ground.
In the past year, Mr. Mortenson and his Central Asia Institute, responsible for the construction of more than 130 schools in Afghanistan and Pakistan, mostly for girls, have set up some three dozen meetings between General McChrystal or his senior staff members and village elders across Afghanistan.
The collaboration, which grew in part out of the popularity of “Three Cups of Tea” among military wives who told their husbands to read it, extends to the office of Adm. Mike Mullen, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Last summer, Admiral Mullen attended the opening of one of Mr. Mortenson’s schools in Pushghar, a remote village in Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush mountains.
Mr. Mortenson — who for a time lived out of his car in Berkeley, Calif. — has also spoken at dozens of military bases, seen his book go on required reading lists for senior American military commanders and had lunch with Gen. David H. Petraeus, General McChrystal’s replacement. On Friday he was in Tampa to meet with Adm. Eric T. Olson, the officer in charge of the United States Special Operations Command.
Mr. Mortenson, 52, thinks there is no military solution in Afghanistan — he says the education of girls is the real long-term fix — so he has been startled by the Defense Department’s embrace.
“I never, ever expected it,” Mr. Mortenson, a former Army medic, said in a telephone interview last week from Florida, where he had paused between military briefings, book talks for a sequel, “Stones into Schools,” and fund-raising appearances for his institute.
Mr. Mortenson, who said he had accepted no money from the military and had no contractual relationship with the Defense Department, was initially critical of the armed forces in the days after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks as “laptop warriors” who appeared, he said, indifferent to the civilian casualties inflicted by the American bombardment of Afghanistan.
In its early days “Three Cups of Tea,” the story of Mr. Mortenson’s efforts to build schools in Pakistan, was largely ignored by the military, and for that matter by most everyone else. Written with a journalist, David Oliver Relin, and published in hardcover by Viking in March 2006, the book had only modest sales. Most major newspapers, including this one, did not review it.
But the book’s message of the importance of girls’ education caught on when women’s book clubs, church groups and high schools began snapping up the less expensive paperback published in January 2007.
Sales to date are at four million copies in 41 countries, and the book’s yarn is well known: disoriented after a 1993 failed attempt on Pakistan’s K2, the second-highest mountain in the world, Mr. Mortenson took a wrong turn into the village of Korphe, was nursed back to health by the villagers and, in gratitude, vowed to build them a school.
He returned to Pakistan a year later with a $12,000 donation from a Silicon Valley benefactor and spent most of it on school construction materials in the city of Rawalpindi — only to be told he could not get his cargo to Korphe without first building a bridge.
The story of that bridge, Mr. Mortenson’s relationships with Pakistanis, and the schools that followed appealed so much to one military spouse that in the fall of 2007 she sent the book to her husband, Christopher D. Kolenda, at that time a lieutenant colonel commanding 700 American soldiers on the Pakistan border.
Colonel Kolenda knew well the instructions about building relationships with elders that were in the Army and Marine Corps’ new counterinsurgency manual, which had been released in late 2006. But “Three Cups of Tea” brought the lessons to life.
“It was practical, and it told real stories of real people,” said Colonel Kolenda, now a top adviser at the Kabul headquarters for the International Security Assistance Force, in an interview at the Pentagon last week.
Colonel Kolenda was among the first in the military to reach out to Mr. Mortenson, and by June 2008 the Central Asia Institute had built a school near Colonel Kolenda’s base. By the summer of 2009, Mr. Mortenson was in meetings in Kabul with Colonel Kolenda, village elders and at times President Obama’s new commander, General McChrystal. (By then at least two more military wives — Deborah Mullen and Holly Petraeus — had told their husbands to read “Three Cups of Tea.”)
As Colonel Kolenda tells it, Mr. Mortenson and his Afghan partner on the ground, Wakil Karimi, were the American high command’s primary conduits for reaching out to elders outside the “Kabul bubble.”
As Mr. Mortenson tells it, the Afghan elders were often blunt with General McChrystal, as in a meeting last October when one of them said that he had traveled all the way from his province because he needed weapons, not conversation.
“He said, ‘Are you going to give them to me or am I going to sit here and listen to you talk?’ ” Mr. Mortenson recalled. The high command replied, Mr. Mortenson said, that they were making an assessment of what he needed. “And he said, ‘Well, you’ve already been here eight years, ” Mr. Mortenson recalled.
Despite the rough edges, Colonel Kolenda said the meetings helped the American high command settle on central parts of its strategy — the imperative to avoid civilian casualties, in particular, which the elders consistently and angrily denounced during the sessions — and also smoothed relations between the elders and commanders.
For Mr. Mortenson’s part, his growing relationship with the military convinced him that it had learned the importance of understanding Afghan culture and of developing ties with elders across the country, and was willing to admit past mistakes.
At the end of this month, Mr. Mortenson, who lives in Bozeman, Mont., with his wife, Tara Bishop, and two children, is going back for the rest of the summer to Afghanistan, where to maintain credibility he now has to make it clear to Afghans and a number of aid organizations that he has no formal connection to the American military.
Mr. Mortenson acknowledges that his solution in Afghanistan, girls’ education, will take a generation and more. “But Al Qaeda and the Taliban are looking at it long range over generations,” he said. “And we’re looking at it in terms of annual fiscal cycles and presidential elections.”
Facebook suggested that Courtney Purvin get in touch with a friend who had died in April.
As Facebook Users Die, Ghosts Reach Out
Brandon Thibodeaux for The New York Times
Courtney Purvin got a shock when she visited Facebook last month. The site was suggesting that she get back in touch with an old family friend who played piano at her wedding four years ago.
The friend had died in April.
“It kind of freaked me out a bit,” she said. “It was like he was coming back from the dead.”
Facebook, the world’s biggest social network, knows a lot about its roughly 500 million members. Its software is quick to offer helpful nudges about things like imminent birthdays and friends you have not contacted in a while. But the company has had trouble automating the task of figuring out when one of its users has died.
That can lead to some disturbing or just plain weird moments for Facebook users as the site keeps on shuffling a dead friend through its social algorithms.
Facebook says it has been grappling with how to handle the ghosts in its machine but acknowledges that it has not found a good solution.
“It’s a very sensitive topic,” said Meredith Chin, a company spokeswoman, “and, of course, seeing deceased friends pop up can be painful.” Given the site’s size, “and people passing away every day, we’re never going to be perfect at catching it,” she added.
James E. Katz, a professor of communications at Rutgers University, said the company was experiencing “a coming-of-age problem.”
“So many of Facebook’s early users were young, and death was rare and unduly tragic,” Mr. Katz said.
Now, people over 65 are adopting Facebook at a faster pace than any other age group, with 6.5 million signing up in May alone, three times as many as in May 2009, according to the research firm comScore. People over 65, of course, also have the country’s highest mortality rate, so the problem is only going to get worse.
Tamu Townsend, a 37-year-old technical writer in Montreal, said she regularly received prompts to connect with acquaintances and friends who had died.
“Sometimes it’s quite comforting when their faces show up,” Ms. Townsend said. “But at some point it doesn’t become comforting to see that. The service is telling you to reconnect with someone you can’t. If it’s someone that has passed away recently enough, it smarts.”
Ms. Purvin, a 36-year-old teacher living in Plano, Tex., said that after she got over the initial jolt of seeing her friend’s face, she was happy for the reminder.
“It made me start talking about him and thinking about him, so that was good,” she said. “But it was definitely a little creepy.”
Facebook’s approach to the deaths of its users has evolved over time. Early on it would immediately erase the profile of anyone it learned had died.
Ms. Chin says Facebook now recognizes the importance of finding an appropriate way to preserve those pages as a place where the mourning process can be shared online.
Following the Virginia Tech shootings in 2007, members begged the company to allow them to commemorate the victims. Now member profiles can be “memorialized,” or converted into tribute pages that are stripped of some personal information and no longer appear in search results. Grieving friends can still post messages on those pages.
Of course, the company still needs to determine whether a user is, in fact, dead. But with a ratio of roughly 350,000 members to every Facebook employee, the company must find ways to let its members and its computers do much of that work.
For a site the size of Facebook, automation is “key to social media success,” said Josh Bernoff, an analyst at Forrester Research and co-author of “Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies.”
“The way to make this work in cases where machines can’t make decisions is to tap into the members,” he said, pointing to Facebook’s buttons that allow users to flag material they find inappropriate. “One way to automate the ‘Is he dead’ problem is to have a place where people can report it.”
That’s just what Facebook does. To memorialize a profile, a family member or friend must fill out a form on the site and provide proof of the death, like a link to an obituary or news article, which a staff member at Facebook will then review.
But this option is not well publicized, so many profiles of dead members never are converted to tribute pages. Those people continue to appear on other members’ pages as friend suggestions, or in features like the “reconnect” box, which has been spooking the living since it was introduced last October.
Ms. Chin said Facebook was considering using software that would scan for repeated postings of phrases like “Rest in peace” or “I miss you” on a person’s page and then dispatch a human to investigate that account.
“We are testing ways to implement software to address this,” she said. “But we can’t get it wrong. We have to do it correctly.”
The scanning approach could invite pranks — as the notification form already has. A friend of Simon Thulbourn, a software engineer living in Germany, found an obituary that mentioned someone with a similar name and submitted it to Facebook last October as evidence that Mr. Thulbourn was dead. He was soon locked out of his own page.
“When I first ‘died,’ I went looking around Facebook’s help pages, but alas, they don’t seem to have a ‘I’m not really dead, could I have my account back please?’ section, so I opted for filling in every form on their Web site,” Mr. Thulbourn said by e-mail.
When that didn’t work, Mr. Thulbourn created a Web page and posted about it on Twitter until news of the mix-up began to spread on technology blogs and the company took notice. He received an apology from Facebook and got his account back.
The memorializing process has other quirks. Memorial profiles cannot add new friends, so if parents joined the site after a child died, they would not have permission to see all the messages and photos shared by the child’s friends.
These are issues that Facebook no doubt wishes it could avoid entirely. But death, of course, is unavoidable, and so Facebook must find a way to integrate it into the social experience online.
“They don’t want to be the bearer of bad tidings, but yet they are the keeper of those living memories,” Mr. Katz, the Rutgers professor, said. “That’s a real downer for a company that wants to be known for social connections and good news.”